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This study was undertaken to identify factorial structure of physical fitness components for female swimmers. In order to accomplish this purpose, the 8 physical fitness test were conducted to 2003 winter preliminary national delegate 30 female swimmers(20 female middle school swimmers, 10 high school swimmers). For the concretely, this study was conducted to physical fitness battery was grip strength, sit-ups, 1600m run, 10m shuttle run, standing trunk flexion, closed eyes foot balance. Factor analysis was applied for analyzing factorial structure of each physical fitness components. The implication of the study are as follows; 1. Among the factors of physical fitness, two factors are important. The first called Factor Ⅰ outcomes total ratio 35.910%, the second factor called Factor Ⅱ outcomes 17.347%. 2. FactorⅠis the standing high jump(.840), grip strength(.689), closed eyes foot balance(.491), 10m shuttle run(-.397), 160m run(-.377), standing trunk flexion(-.317) composed of speed, muscular strength, balance that had an impact on a maximum performance outcomes in female swimming match. 3. Factor Ⅱ is complex components factor composed of 10m shuttle run(-.714), standing trunk flexion(.694), sit-ups(-.714), 1600m run(-.524).