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Melioidosis is an infection of the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudoma-llei. While it is known as an important cause of sepsis or chronic abscess-formingdisease in Southeast Asia and northern Australia, no case has yet been reported inKorea. A 50-yr-old man visited our hospital for intermittent fever associated with drycough and sputum. Roentgenographic examination showed migrating pulmonaryinfiltration. Symptoms and chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) imagefindings did not improve despite use of fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Gram-negativebacteria were isolated on bronchoscopic washing culture and were identified as B. pseudomallei on DNA sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA with 100% homology. Treatment for melioidosis was commenced with high dose ceftazidime, and the pa-tient’s fever, cough, and sputum were improved and the lesion on chest radiograph and CT almost disappeared.