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The aim of this paper is to synthesize the current archaeological data of the Puyo society, which existed in central Jilin of northeast China between the first century B.C. and the fourth century A.D. This paper reviews most recent archaeological evidence to identify the sites and material remains of the Puyo society. Both settlement and burial sites of Puyo are analyzed in order to understand the nature and characteristics of its material culture. These sites include Nanchengzi, Maoershan, Paoziyan Qianshan, and Laoheshen. Such artifacts as pottery, bricks, roof-tiles, iron, bronze, and other metal objects, personal ornaments, and some organic artifacts are described and discussed. It also addresses the archaeological definition of Puyo, its origins and development process, dates, and relationship with neighboring societies.