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본 연구는 한국 교원의 권리와 의무에 관한 법적 근거와 관련법의 내용을 고찰하고, 교원들이 그들의 권리 행사와 의무 수행의 실상에 대해 어떻게 인식하고 있는가를 조사하여 장차 교원의 법적 지위 향상을 위한 제도적 장치와 정책 수립에 필요한 자료와 정보를 탐색하는데 그 목적을 두었다. 본 연구를 위해 관련 법규, 문헌 및 선행연구를 조사하였고, 또 전국의 초, 중, 고등학교 교원 1,000명을 무작위 추출하여 이들을 대상으로 질문지 조사를 실시하였다. 질문지 조사 결과를 요약하면, 첫째, 교원의 권리가 강화되어야 하는 영역으로는 ‘교과학습지도면’으로 나타났고, 둘째, 교원의 생활보장권 중 교원의 경제적 지위는 타의 전문직에 비해 낮은 것으로 답하였으며, 셋째, 교원의 사기 앙양을 위해서는 근무여건 개선요구권이나 복지후생제도 확충요구권이 잘 보장되어야 하는 것으로 나타났다. 교원의 의무에 대한 인식조사에서 가장 높은 반응을 보인 것이 ‘교육연구활동 의무’로 나타났다. 다시 말하면 교원의 법적 의무 사항 중 가장 중요한 의무로 답한 것은 ‘교육연구활동 의무였고, 이러한 응답 결과는 건전한 교직 풍토와 교원의 법적 지위 향상을 위해 고무적이라 보아야 할 것이다.


The purpose of this study was to examine the current Korean law about the rights and duties of teacher and how Korean teachers perceived their rights and duties in an effort to help improve educational administration and to let teachers wake up to their rights and duties. It's specifically attempted to suggest how the legal status of teachers could be elevated by looking into the law about their rights and duties and their way of looking at their legal status. After literature concerned was reviewed, a survey was conducted on elementary and secondary school teachers across the nation. The findings of the study were as follows: First, the teachers investigated called on their autonomy to be guaranteed in the field of academic guidance. Secondly, they viewed the economic status of teaching profession more negatively than that of other occupations. Third, they found it most urgently necessary for themselves to be less burdened with nonessential work in order to improve their working conditions, and they had a moderate opinion about their own job security. Fourth, those who were insecure about their job outnumbered slightly the others who weren't, and they cited teacher evaluation as the biggest reason. This phenomenon indicated that they needed to see teacher evaluation in a new light. Fifth, most of them intended to ask Appeal Commission for Teachers to have a new trial in case of being unfairly submitted to a disciplinary measure. Sixth, educational research was regarded as the most important duty they had to perform to enhance their own position.