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This paper aims at interpreting the theory of dependent-arising and non-self as the foundation of equality of beings from the perspective of Buddhist ecology. All beings including humans are epistemologically equal because they are mutually interrelated and they consist of only five aggregates without the self. Here equality does not mean to treat all beings without considering their distinctiveness. It is equality as “respect” considering their distinctiveness. In order to argue this, this paper examines the formula of dependent-arising, the 12 chains, and the theory of non-self in early Buddhist texts. The author sees that the 12 chains as an application of the formula of dependent-arising present mutually dependent interrelatedness of all beings. She sees that all pairs of the 12 chains including the pair of consciousness and name-form should be understood in terms of mutual relatedness. This interpretation is possible when the pairs are understood not in terms of time but of logic. According to this understanding, mutual dependence of dependent-arising means that all beings are equal because each being takes their own places and plays their own unique roles in one holistic life process. Humans and all beings equally consist of mere five aggregates or four elements and have no self. They all together have the nature of impermanence, suffering, and non-self. They are not mine, not I, and not my self. This common nature of all beings says that all existences in the world are equal because they have the same nature of five aggregates and non-self. This nature is not only a matter of understanding but also a matter of an ethical practice with regard to equality.