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Mucoadhesive microspheres were prepared by interpolymer complexation of chitosan with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and solvent evaporation method to increase gastric residence time. The chitosan-PAA complex formation was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and swelling study. The DSC thermogram of chitosan-PAA microspheres showed two exothermic peaks for the decomposition of chitosan and PAA. The swelling ratio of the chitosan-PAA microspheres was dependent on the pH of the medium. The swelling ratio was higher at pH 2.0 than at neutral pH. The results indicated that the microspheres were formed by electrostatic interaction between the carboxyl groups of PAA and the amine groups of chitosan. The effect of various process parameters on the formation and morphology of microspheres was investigated. The best microspheres were obtained when 1.5% of the high molecular weight chitosan and 0.3% of PAA were used as an internal phase. The optimum internal phase volume was 7%. The corn oil was used as the external phase of emulsion, and span 80 was used as the surfactant. The prepared microspheres had spherical shape.