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This study was carried out to investigate the difference of growth characteristics and the content of root chemical components in four years old ginseng by paddy an upland cultivation at farmers' field in Korea. Proportions of silt, clay, liquid phase and porosity were higher in paddy soil than upland soil. The range of liquid phase was 7.5~19.5% in paddy and 7.0~12.8% in upland during growth period. EC and the other contents of OM, NO3-, C2O, and Mg in paddy soil were higher than those of upland soil, while the contents of P2O5 and Ca were less than those of upland soil. The levels o chemical components of tested soil exceeded recommended range in EC, NO3- and Ca of paddy soil, and in P2O5 and Ca of upland soil. Stem length, fresh root weight and total dry weight per plant in paddy were greater than those of upland. Root weight in paddy-ginseng showed a great increase on September, while it was not increased in upland because of early defoliation. Net assimilation rate and crop growth rate by paddy and upland cultivation showed distinct differences on May and September, and those o paddy-ginseng were higher than those of upland-ginseng. Yield and ratio of red-colored root showed no significant difference by paddy and upland cultivation, while significant differences were observed in diameter and length of primary root, contents of crude saponin and 50% ethanol extracts of primary root, and water content of root. Hardness of primary root showed no significant difference by paddy and upland cultivation until August, but it showed distinct difference on September, at which the hardness in upland cultivation was drastically decreased.