초록 close

The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was ratified in 1991. With the aim to ensure comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment, it contains provisions on environmental protection and conservation of the Antarctic area, including provisions for Environmental Impact Assessment. Environmental Impact Assessment is a method used to predict environmental impacts at an early stage in project planning and design, and find ways to mitigate or prevent adverse impacts in order to maintain balance between development activities and environmental conservation. Internationally, the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in the Antarctic is classified into three types - Preliminary, Initial, and Comprehensive - based on the environmental impacts of the proposed activities. In case of the Preliminary Environmental Review (PER), proposed activity may proceed in accordance to the national procedures and drafting of an outline. However, Initial (IEE) and Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation (CEE) assess and verify the impacts of the proposed activity, and require methods or alternatives for mitigating or eliminating negative impacts on the environment. Although Korea's Act of  Activities and Environmental Protection in Antarctica  also includes provisions on EIA for activities in Antarctica, there are obvious contrasts with the EIAs currently being conducted in Korea, in regards to deciding the level of EIA through screening and identifying key issues for assessment through scoping. In order to implement the proper EIA, more improved methods for drafting and reviewing the EIA to Antarctica in Korea are necessary.