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The social conflict that appeared in the health market under the late imperial period was the result of the unequal power relationship between public health insurance and autonomous medical profession. It was so because insurers could wield their autonomous power to choose or exclude which doctors would treat the insured workers. Doctors therefore had to individually conclude contracts to treat their patients, and remuneration was comprehensively calculated according to the number of insurer-decided members. Against this encroachment by insurers’ power, doctors formed their own union, the Leipziger Verband (1900), which was modelled on trade unions. Its aim was to secure free right for the workers to choose doctors (freie Arztwahl) on the one hand and fee-for-service remuneration on the other. Those up to 1,000 local strikes between 1900 and 1911 demonstrated the unitary power of this Verband. When the Imperial Insurance Code (RVO), enacted in 1912, did not represent doctors’ interests, though, the Leipziger Verband eventually waged a general strike. Under these circumstances, the government intervened, and the outcome was the historical Berlin Treaty. Following the Treaty, insurers, doctors and government agency participated in Vertragsaussschuss, which was supposed to regulate all kinds of medical disputes. We can thus trace back to the Berlin Treaty the roots of politics of corporatism that symbolizes the present-day German national health politics.