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For last several decades, the functional regeneration in spinal cord injured by accident or damage have reported a few success because of the inability of central neurons to regenerate correct function. Based on the rapid growth in the research for stem cell in biology field, many researcher have focused on regenerative medicine using neural stem cell existing in CNS. Although neural stem cells have the self cloning ability and multipotont that can form specific cells in CNS, the many studies for basic property of stem cells such as control for differentiation of stem cells, development of injured spinal cord model, and the evaluation of the functional regeneration as well as isolation, harvest, or amplification of stem cells are necessary to examine in the clinical view. In this review, we describe the isolation and culture of neural stem cells, as well as the functional regeneration of the injured spinal cord by regeneration of CNS via transplantation of stem cells. In addition, future prospect for the development in therapy of neurodegenerative diseases based on stem cell engineering also demonstrate.