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This research attempts to examine different disputes about heresy, focusing on the cases of Choi Jung Jin and Baek Nam Yong. Previous studies have only cited the denominational assembly records of the Presbytery, reflecting the position of the specific denomination and missionaries. However, this study focuses on examining different documents that are limited but related to the issue, aiming to understanding the context of the time and to avoid approaching the definition of heresy simply as a doctrinal issue. In the case of the dispute over Choi Jung Jin’s supposed heresy, instead of focusing on the missionary’s disobedience of the Church’s admonition, this study has aimed to argue how the local context in Korea clashed with the Southern Presbyterian missionaries, and examine the regional custom of concubinage, which was seen by the missionaries as an evil practice. It will also observe how the modern Western and Christian definitions were applied literally in order to abolish concubinage. By focusing on the women who were concubines, this study observes that it was hard to apply Western and Chinese definitions directly to this local custom. In the case of the dispute over Baek Nam Yong’s supposed heresy, this evaluation centers on how the assertions of Baek Nam Yong and the evangelists in Ulsan church clashed with the assertions of the Presbytery and Park Hyung Ryong about heretical content. This study takes into consideration various specific historical documents that have not been examined in previous studies. KyungNam Presbytery discharged or excommunicated Baek Nam Yong and other evangelists on the ground of disobedience and the propagation of heretical ideas. However, what KyungNam Presbytery described as heretical ideas could be interpreted in many different ways according to different points of view.