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The purpose of this study is to reveal the evolution process of urban space between the Piazza S. Pietro and it's circumstances. In order to facilitate the research, 4 situations of different periods and urban contexts around the Piazza S. Pietro were reconstructed and compared, in base of various documentations including iconography, cartography, bibliography, photography. In conclusion, the transformation of the Piazza S. Pietro is the result of complex situations but Bernini's intention to realize harmony between architecture and urban elements was the most decisive factor. The Via Alessandrina had been traditional urban linkage between Vatican area and exterior world but, in the 20th century, when the Via Alessandrina was demolished and substituted by the Via della Conciliazione, the meaning of urban context changes and original intents of the architects that had participated in modelling urban forms around the Piazza S. Pietro are somewhat deteriorated and distorted.