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The purpose of this study was to survey the children's memory elements of their neighborhood images, to analyze the meaningful elements in them and to suggest the residential environment planning data for children's perspective. Survey area included 5 elementary schools in Daejeon city, which were selected based on the residential area, housing type, and child population. Two classes of 5th graders were chosen from each school and surveyed 339 students. The conclusions were as the following from the survey results. 1) The children memorized frequent or visually stimulating environmental elements as neighborhood images. So residential environment, which consciously and subconsciously stimulated the child, affected child development. Furthermore, traffic image element, which negatively affected child development, was shown as the most urgent issue to be resolved to promote child safety. We also found that natural image elements, which had positive effects on child development, should be composed of objects that encourages child to experience and be emotionally attached rather than scenic objects. 2) Child development steps required the image elements to encourage full play and friendship. Therefore, residential environment planners must consider such elements in their design. 3) In order to encourage positive child cognitive development, the residential environment must provide a diversity through the passage of time, so that the child will memorize the history of the place. 4) It could be proved the cognitive development theory through the image elements of residential environment that child expressed.