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As the interest in global environment has been increasing at home and abroad, many studies in the architectural field have conducted for the purpose of converting the construction industry into an environment-friendly industry. To be concrete, those studies attempt a quantitative analysis of the construction industry's environmental load through a LCA (life cycle assessment) to create alternatives for the conversion into an environment-friendly industry. Most of those studies, however, apply an uniform methodology in the process of analyzing energy and environmental load quantitatively through the LCA. They are limited to giving conceptual definitions of other applicable methodologies. The problem is that this background may be considered as the only applicable alternative in subsequent studies, by disregarding the connection between a methodology's limits in assessment and a study's purpose. For reasons mentioned above, this study makes theoretical description and case analyses of various methodologies (such as input-output analysis, process analysis, and hybrid method), which can be presented as data processing methods at the LCA's phase of inventory analysis. This study's ultimate purpose is to define each methodology's concepts and qualities in detail, by comparing and analyzing those methodologies' features. It is considered that the findings will give subsequent researchers the possibility to conduct their studies with more definite analytical methodologies.