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Fatigue tests of transverse fillet weldment were performed under out-of-plane bending loads. Significant increase of the fatigue strength was observed under out-of-plane bending loads, compared to the one under in-plane loads (axial loads). Applicability of the crack propagation analysis using LEFM for the surface crack of fillet weldment were investigated as well, in parallel with the fatigue tests. For the rational assessment of the fatigue strength of welded ship structures where combined stresses of the in-plane axial stress and the out-of-plane bending stress are induced simultaneously due to complexity of applied load and structural geometry, further investigation is recommended for the effect of the out-of-plane bending stress on the fatigue strength of weldment.