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This study compared institutionalized children with at-home children regarding characteristics of emotional intelligence and self-esteem, and the relationship between the two. The participants of this study were 62 institutionalized children and 98 children reared at home, residing in an undisclosed city. Major findings of this study were as follows. First, the institutionalized children had a lower level of self-esteem and emotional intelligence than children at home. Second, the relationship between self-esteem and emotional intelligence was significantly different between institutionalized and at-home children. Third, in case of institutionalized children, 'other-regulation and self-expression' among the emotional intelligence factors was the strongest predictor of 'scholastic competence' among self-esteem factors. In contrast, for the at-home children, 'other-regulation and self-expression' among the emotional intelligence factors was the strongest predictor of 'social acceptance' among self-esteem factors.