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The purpose of this study was to compare the consumption expenditure patterns and the effects of socioeconomic variables on expenditure between single-mother families and two-parent families. From the 2001 Household Income and Expenditure Survey conducted by Korea National Statistical Office (KNSO), 693 single-mother families and 14,439 two-parent families were selected. A t-test was completed to examine how the expenditure patterns of two types of families differ. Total expenditures and expenditures on 11 consumption categories were modeled as functions of permanent income and other socioeconomic variables. Also, dummy variable interaction technique was used to examine whether the independent variables differently affected the expenditures between single-mother families and two-parent families. The results of this study indicated that there were differences between single-mother and two-parent families in the levels and shares of expenditures of each consumption category, and the effects of socioeconomic variables on expenditures. Single-mother families had spent less than did two-parent families in each consumption category. However, single-mother families had significantly higher expenditure shares for food at home, shelter, utilities, apparel and shoes, and education. Income elasticities for food at home, shelter, utilities, and education of single-mother families were significantly larger than those of two-parent families.