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This paper presents a method of seismic analysis for a cylindrical liquid storage structureconsidering the effects of the interior fluid and exterior soil medium in the frequency domain. Thehorizontal and rocking motions of the structure are included in this study. The fluid motion is expressedin terms of analytical velocity potential functions, which can be obtained by solving the boundary valueproblem including the deformed configuration of the structure as well as the sloshing behavior of thefluid. The effect of the fluid is included in the equation of motion as the impulsive added mass and thefrequency-dependent convective added mas along the nodes on the wetted boundary of the structure. Thestructure and the near-field soil medium are represented using the axisymmetric finite elements, while thefar-field soil is modeled using dynamic infinite elements. The present method can be applied to thestructure embedded in ground as well as on ground, since it models both the soil medium and thestructure directly. For the purpose of verification, earthquake response analyses are performed on severalcases of liquid tanks on a rigid ground and on a homogeneous elastic half-space. Comparison of thepresent results with those by other methods shows good agreement. Finally, an application example of areinforced concrete tank on a horizontally layered soil with a rigid bedrock is presented to demonstratethe importance of the soil-structure interaction effects in the seismic analysis for large liquid storage tanks.