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Schwannoma is a distinct subset of peripheral nerve sheath tumor distinguished by unique histologic and immunohistochemical features. Tracheal schwannomas are among the rarest of tracheal tumors. The surgical approach to such tumors has been debated. We report a case of a primary tracheal schwannoma causing airway obstruction in a 52-year-old woman. Computerized tomography demonstrated an intraluminal growing mass in the trachea. Tracheofissure was performed to remove the mass. Histologic analysis revealed a benign neurogenic tumor of Schwann cell. We plan to follow up and examine the patient very carefully for the possibility of recurrence. (Korean J Otolaryngol 2002;45:1023-6)