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Purpose: High dose chemotherapy (HDC) is increasinglybeing used for ovarian cancer. Although earlystudies of autotransplantation for advanced ovarian cancerhave been encouraging, most reported series weresmall, and no randomized trials have been reported. HDCand autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantationwere rarely performed in patients with ovarian cancer inKorea, and no results have been reported with theexception of one case report. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 10patients with refractory or relapsed ovarian cancer havingreceived HDC and autologous peripheral blood stem celltransplantation (APBSCT), between January 1996 andSeptember 1998, at the Soon Chun Hyang and AjouUniversity Hospitals. Results: Ten patients were treated with HDC andAPBSCT. Six patients achieved complete response (CR)and 1 a partial response (PR), with a response rate of70%. Three patients did not respond following mobilizationchemotherapy, and failed to respond after HDC. The median duration of progression free survival (PFS)and overall survival (OS) were 6 (4∼46) and 13 (3∼50+)months, respectively. The median duration of OS of theresponders following mobilization chemotherapy was 23(8∼50+) compared with 12 (3∼18) months of the nonresponders. With regard to the treatment related toxicity,8 patients had neutropenic fevers, and bacteremia wasdocumented in 4. The non-hematological toxicities werenever life threatening, and there were no treatment relateddeaths. Conclusion: HDC, followed by APBSCT, is well-toleratedpatients with refractory or relapsed ovarian cancer, andfollowing mobilization chemotherapy the responderssurvived longer than the non-responders. (Cancer Res Treat. 2002;34:439-443)