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Pyostomatitis vegetans is a rare oral condition characterized by miliary pustules that primarily affect the labial gingiva as well as the buccal and labial mucosa. It is consistently associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is a highly specific marker for IBD. Authors are reporting a 45 year-old female patient who developed pyostomatitis vegetans after she was diagnosed as having ulcerative colitis. Our experience indicates that there is an intimate relationship betwen pyostomatitis vegetans and (IBD). In a pyostomatitis vegetans patient whose IBD is in dormant state, the diagnosis of IBD can be missed. It is imperative, therefore, to suspect IBD in a patient with pyostomatitis vegetans who has no gastrointestinal symptoms and recomend thorough investigational study of the gatrointestinal system. (Korean J Otolaryngol 2003 ;46 :990-2)