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Background and Objectives:The etiology and pathogenesis of nasal polyp are still ill-defined and have been debated for many years. Recently, the identification and localization of mRNA of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors that may be s have not been studied. The purpose of this study is to investigate IL-12 and IL-4 mRNA in the polyps of the patients with allergy-asociated and nonallergy-asociated chronic sinusitis and compared it with controls. IL-12 receptor and IRF-1, c-maf and GATA-3 which are transcription factors of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5, respectively were also studied. Materials and Method:Nasal polyp tissues were surgicaly obtained from two groups of patients with chronic sinusitis:those who had alergic rhinitis (n=9) and those without allergy (n=13). The normal nasal mucosa from inferior turbinate were obtained from normal sub-jects. IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-12Rβ2, IRF-1, IL-4, GATA-3 and c-maf mRNA expression were analysed by means of the reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction and southern blot in thre groups. Results:The expresion of IL-12p40, IL-12Rβ2, IRF-1 mRNA were significantly higher in the nonallergic polyp group than in the control group (p<0.05). GATA-3 mRNA was significantly expressed in allergic polyp group than in the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion:These results su-gest IL-12, IL-12Rβ2 and IRF-1 may be involved in nonallergic polyp formation. GATA-3 may contribute to allergic polyp formation. (Korean J Otolaryngol 2002;45:137-43)