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This paper was performed to study of The origin of Chinese New Literature中國新文學的源流 by Zhou Zuoren周作人’s theory of literature history, and a argument of Chinese New Literary History with Qian Zhongshu錢鍾書’s negative reviews about the origin of Chinese New Literature. Based on this point, This paper is consisted of foreword, two body chapters, conclusion and the references. Chapter one gave an introduction to this paper and reviewed the former research. On the basis of previous studies, in Chapter two, tried to discuss about the viewpoint of Zhou’s The origin of Chinese New Literature. As everyone knows that ideals言志 and moral載道 are two important concepts in the history of Chinese Literature, Zhou was traced back to the end of the Ming dynasty and mainly intended to indicate the mainstream of Chinese Literature, For this reason, Zhou’s The origin of Chinese New Literature has significant implications, which is the important thing about the origin of Chinese New Literature, which intellectual aspirations have been directly reflected in his writing. In Chapter three, tried to analyze about the viewpoint of Qian Zhongshu’s review on Zhou’s The origin of Chinese New Literature. Analysis showed that Qian through his literary criticism, tried to clarify the problem of the Chinese New Literature, even previous literary criticism. Thus, and tried to clear the difference from Zhou’s viewpoint of literature. I think it is not as the object of Chinese literary criticism, but as a theoretical basis for the criticism, to break through to the other side, Qian Zhongshu who tries to find new and efficient ways to do that work. By comparison, Zhou Zuoren & Qian Zhongshu used their so-called academic literacy, tried to approach a subject from the literary and scholarly point of view. I think the argument between Zhou Zuoren & Qian Zhongshu on the History of Chinese Literature provided new insight into their academic achievement, include many faces of theory and criticism in the study of Chinese New Literature.