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The ecological process-based approach provides a detailed assessment of belowground compartment as one of the major compartment of carbon balance. Carbon net balance (NEP: net ecosystem production) in forest ecosystems by ecological process-based approach is determined by the balance between net primary production (NPP) of vegetation and heterotrophic respiration (HR) of soil (NEP=NPP-HR). Respiration due to soil heterotrophs is the difference between total soil respiration (SR) and root respiration (RR) (HR=SR-RR, NEP=NPP-(SR-RR)). If NEP is positive, it is a sink of carbon. This study assessed the forest carbon balance by ecological process-based approach included belowground compartment intensively. The case study in the Takayama Station, cool-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest was reported. From the result, NEP was estimated approximately 1.2 t C ha −1 yr −1 in 1996. Therefore, the study area as a whole was estimated to act as a sink of carbon. According to flux tower result, the net uptake rate of carbon was 1.1 t C ha −1 yr −1 .