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Causal Relationships among Family, Delinquent Peers and Delinquent Behavior. Lee, Seong-Sik (Professor, Department of Police Administration, Keimyung University, Ph.D. in Sociology) This study examines the reciprocal relationships among family, delinquent peer associations, and delinquent behavior. Few studies have examined whether the importance of family and peers in the etiology of delinquency over the development of adolescence. This study tests several competing hypotheses. Results show that family and delinquent behavior are not reciprocally related, while delinquent peer associations and delinquent behavior are significant related. However, those reciprocal relationships are found only from early to middle adolescence, but the effect of peer associations on delinquency is not significant at later stage. For later ages of adolescence, the effect of delinquency on delinquent peer associations is nevertheless strong and delinquency is mainly explained by prior delinquency. Those findings support the hypothesis derived from Gottfredson and Hirschi.