초록

본 연구는 혁신의 사회적 가치 창출의 사회적 조건을 혁신의 매체로서의 특징 측면에서 논증한다. 기술 혁신에 관한 기존의 논의가 혁신의 경쟁 효과 혹은 개별 기업의 혁신 역량을 중심으로 살펴보았으나, 본 연구는 수요 효과 측면에서 혁신의 본질을 읽고 있다. 구체적으로 사회 전체의 후생을 증가시키는 가치 창출 혁신의 제도적 조건을 탐색하였다. 본 연구의 논증은 다음의 구조를 가진다. 첫째, 비고객 탐색을 수반하는 시장 창출 혁신은 가치 창출 혁신의 필요조건이다. 공급 측면이 아니라, 수요 측면에서 기술 혁신의 본질을 이해하는 선행연구는 새로운 시장의 창출, 새로운 상품 카테고리의 창출, 즉 기성 시장 외부에 존재하는 비고객의 발굴을 중심으로 논의가 진행된다. 비고객의 발굴이 수반되지 않는 혁신은, 한 사람의 이익이 다른 사람의 이익으로 이전되는 수요 대체 혁신은 가치 이전에 불과하다. 둘째, 비고객 탐색은 가치 창출의 충분조건은 아니다. 기성 상품의 체계와의 비교 가능성이 충족되어야 상업적 성공이 가능하므로, 시장 창출 혁신은 부분적으로 수요 대체적이다. 셋째, 혁신의 미디어적 특성으로 인하여, 성공적인 시장 창출 혁신은 역설적으로 미래 시장의 창출을 억제한다. 즉 혁신가의 이익은 지속가능하다. 따라서 기성의 차이 체계와 독립적이지 않는 혁신은, 즉 모호하지 않는 상품은 가치 창출의 가능성이 낮다.

키워드

기술혁신, 가치 창출, 제도주의

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