ABSTRACT

The Chinese Peking Theatre (“Chinese Theatre”), one of China’s most representative forms of performing arts, has resonated deep with Chinese people since the Qing Dynasty to date. The sheer volume of massive publications on artistic achievements or features of the Chinese Theatre demonstrates people’s profound interest in the theatre. Those books and journals may describe the pride the public have over the nation’s cultural excellence. Or they may be about the assessment by the art experts over its cultural and artistic values. It almost surely appears that the Chinese Theatre is a perfectly ideal form of performing arts that strikes a chord with the Chinese. This brings up the question whether the theatre can touch upon the emotions of people from other cultures. This study started from the curiosity of how the Chinese Theatre may have been received by the people from the cultures that are geographically remote when even the public of neighboring Korea felt starkly unfamiliar about the theatre. To this end, the study chose Mei Lanfang’s overseas performances for analysis, particularly those performed in the U.S. In fact, Mei Lanfang’s performances in Japan made a sensational success as predicted along with comparative critiques being actively written over similarities between the Chinese Theatre and Onnagata from Japan’s Kabuki Theatre. Theatre performances in the U.S. have a wholly different level of meaning because they deal with the audience of a completely different culture. Mei Lanfang’s performances in the U.S. were successful because of excellent strategy and planning of his team and Americans’ interest in the unique and eccentric features of the Chinese art. But most of all, Mei Lanfang’s personal excellence in theatrical arts and maturity and openness of U.S. artistic and theatrical circles were the primary reasons for the triumph. American contemporary artists and critics could look into their own theatrical and cultural circumstances in a different perspective through the Chinese Theatre.

KEYWORD

매란방(Mei Lanfang), 미국 공연(Performances in the U.S.), 경극(Chinese Theatre), 문화수용(Embracing of Culture), 사실주의(Realism), 상징주의(Symbolism)

REFERENCES(110)open

  1. [book] 阿甲 / 2005 / 阿甲戏剧论集 / 中国戏剧出版社

  2. [jounal] 艾立中 / 2015 / 中国戏曲:从备受攻击到重建自信 / 中国现代文学研究丛刊 (7)

  3. [other] 艾思奇 / 1934 / 中国戏与象征主义 / 申报

  4. [other] 安裴智 / 2008 / 齐如山为梅兰芳做“嫁衣”的文化奇人 / 深圳特区报

  5. [book] 陈纪湮 / 2008 / 齐如老与梅兰芳 / 黄山书社

  6. [book] 陈平原 / 2005 / 北京:都市想象与文化记忆 / 北京大学出版社

  7. [book] 陈世雄 / 2003 / 二角对话:斯坦尼布莱希特与中国戏剧 / 厦门大学出版社

  8. [book] 陈松 / 1985 / 五四前后东西文化问题论战文选 / 中国社会科学出版社

  9. [book] 陈沾 / 2010 / 民国戏曲史年谱1912~1949 / 文化艺术出版社

  10. [jounal] 程龙 / 2011 / 美国公众视野下的梅兰芳 / 中国社会科学报

  11. [book] 程砚秋茗 / 2009 / 程砚秋戏剧文栠 / 华艺出版社

  12. [book] 程永让 / 2010 / 捏砚秋日记 / 时代文艺出版社

  13. [other] 春醪 / 1925 / 梅兰芳出洋演剧之标准 / 申报

  14. [book] 崔国良 / 2003 / 张彭春论教育与戏剧艺术 / 南开大学出版社

  15. [book] 都文伟 / 2002 / 百老汇的中国题材与中国戏曲 / 三联书店

  16. [book] 都文伟 / 2002 / 百老汇的中国题材与中国戏曲 / 三联书店

  17. [book] 邓云乡 / 2004 / 文化占城旧事 / 河北教育出版社

  18. [book] 冯崇义 / 1998 / 罗素与中国-西方思想在中国的一次经历 / 生活・读书・新知三联书店

  19. [jounal] 傅谨 / 2007 / 东方艺术的身份确认: 梅兰芳1930年访美的文化阐释 / 中国京剧

  20. [book] 傅谨 / 2007 / 京剧学前沿 / 文化艺术出版社

  21. [jounal] 傅谨 / 2007 / 京剧改革的梅兰芳启示 / 中国新闻周刊 (33)

  22. [book] 葛懋春 / 1984 / ≪无政府主义思想资料选≫ 上册 / 北京大学出版社

  23. [book] 戈公振 / 1984 / 从东北到庶联 / 湖南人民出版社

  24. [jounal] 郭佳 / 2013 / 北京京剧院不再以场次博眼球欲打造世界知名剧院 / 北京青年报 1

  25. [jounal] 伊藤绰彦 / 2013 / 关于1919年和1924年梅兰芳的日本公演 / 中央戏剧学院学报 ≪戏剧≫ (3)

  26. [book] 贾志刚 / 2011 / 中国近代戏曲史 / 文化艺术出版社

  27. [jounal] 蓝颖 / 2011 / 电视媒际下的京剧审美 / 艺术探索 (6)

  28. [book] 梁燕 / 2009 / 梅兰芳背后的重要推手—齐如山 / 群言

  29. [book] 梁燕 / 2008 / 齐如山剧学研究 / 学苑出版社

  30. [book] 梁燕 / 2008 / 齐如山剧学研究 / 学苑出版社

  31. [book] 廖奔 / 2007 / 东西方戏剧的对峙与解构 / 上海辞书出版社

  32. [book] 李伶伶 / 2007 / 程砚秋全传 / 中国宵年出版社

  33. [book] 李伶伶 / 2008 / 梅兰芳的艺术与情感 / 团结出版社

  34. [jounal] 李征兵 / 2008 / “无声不歌,无动不舞”——齐如山戏曲艺术构成论 / 保定学院学报

  35. [jounal] 李向东 / 2010 / 齐如山, 梅兰芳赴美演出的总设计师 / 云南艺术学院学报

  36. [book] 林一 / 2009 / 中国戏曲的跨文化传播 / 中国传媒大学出版社

  37. [book] 梅兰芳 / 1987 / ≪舞台生活四十年≫ 第二集 / 中国戏剧出版社

  38. [book] 梅绍武 / 2006 / ≪我的父亲梅兰芳≫ 上下 / 中华书局

  39. [book] 齐如山 / 2005 / 梅兰芳游美记 / 辽宁教育出版社

  40. [book] 齐如山 / 1998 / 齐如山回忆录 / 中国戏剧出版社

  41. [book] 荣广润 / 2007 / 地球村中的戏剧互动 / 三联书店

  42. [book] 施叔青 / 1988 / 西方人看中国戏剧 / 人民文学出版社

  43. [book] 宋伟杰 / 2003 / 中国・文学・美国—美国小说戏剧中的中国形象 / 花城出版社

  44. [jounal] 孙重亮 / 2011 / 多元文化格局下的京剧突围 / 中国京剧 (3)

  45. [jounal] 王德彰 / 2013 / 梅兰芳将京剧艺术推向世界 / 文史精华 (4)

  46. [jounal] 王佳磊 / 2008 / 中美戏剧交流与百年国剧梦 / 贵州大学学报 (3)

  47. [jounal] 王廷信 / 2006 / 戏曲传播的两个层次—论戏曲的本位传播和延伸传播 / 艺术百家 (4)

  48. [book] 王文章 / 2015 / 梅兰芳往来书信集 / 文化艺术出版社

  49. [jounal] 王育生 / 2008 / 这边独好—浙江京剧团剧目建设和市场开拓之路初探 / 中国戏剧

  50. [jounal] 吴戈 / 2015 / 跨文化戏剧断想 / 云南艺术学院学报 (1)

  51. [jounal] 吴戈 / 2000 / 殖民语境中的中美戏剧交流 / 上海戏剧学院学报 (4)

  52. [jounal] 张帆 / 2014 / 对近三十年我国戏曲传播学研究的反思 / 中央戏剧学院学报 (2)

  53. [jounal] 朱琰 / 2010 / 传统京剧的国际化嬗变 / 剧影月报 (2)

  54. [jounal] Achilles / 1924 / Mei Lan Fang: China's Foremost Actor / The Living Age May 31

  55. [book] Atsuko Sakaki / 2005 / Obsessions with the Sino-Japanese Polarity in Japanese Literature / University of Hawaii Press

  56. [other] Atkinson J. Brooks / 1930 / China's Idol Actor Reveals His Art / New York Times

  57. [other] Atkinson J. Brooks / 1930 / Mei Lan-fang, Ambassador in Art / New York Times

  58. [other] Atkinson J. Brooks / 1930 / Japanese Players in Realistic Drama / New York Times

  59. [book] Barba Eugenio / 1986 / 1986 ISTA Program

  60. [jounal] Barba Eugenio / 1988 / Eugenio Barba to Phillip Zarrilli / The Drama Review 32 (3)

  61. [book] Barba Eugenio / 1995 / The Paper Canoe: A Guide to Theatre Anthropology / Routledge

  62. [book] Barba Eugenio / 1996 / The Intercultural Performance Reader / Routledge

  63. [jounal] Barba Eugenio / 2003 / Grandfathers, Orphans, and the Family Saga of European Theatre / New Theatre Quarterly 19 (2)

  64. [jounal] Brecht Bertolt / 1993 / The Forth Wall of China: An Essay on the Effect of Disillusion in the Chinese Theatre / Brecht, Werke 22

  65. [jounal] Brecht Bertolt / 1961 / Chinese Acting / Tulane Drama Review 6 (1)

  66. [other] Brecht Bertolt / 1964 / Alienation Effects in Chinese Acting.. In Brecht on Theatre

  67. [other] Brown John Mason / 1930 / Mei Lan-fang Presents Chinese Plays / New York Evening Post

  68. [jounal] Brown John Mason / 1936 / The Unreality of Realism / The North American Review 242 (1)

  69. [other] Littell Robert / 1930 / An Evening in China / The World (New York)

  70. [other] Littell Robert / 1930 / Mei Lan-fang / The World

  71. [other] Littell Robert / 1932 / The New Play / The World

  72. [other] Los Angeles Times / 1926 / Symbols Important in Dances / Los Angeles Times

  73. [other] Los Angeles Times / 1926 / ST. Denis Return Is Applauded / Los Angeles Times

  74. [other] Los Angeles Times / 1927 / Chinese Star Coming Here / Los Angeles Times

  75. [other] Los Angeles Times / 1930 / Mei Lan-fang Address Lauded / Los Angeles Times

  76. [book] Mackerras Colin / 1972 / The Rise of the Peking Opera, 1770~1870 / Clarendon Press

  77. [book] Mantle Burns / 1930 / The Best Plays of 1929~30, v-x / Dodd Mead

  78. [book] Mantle Burns / 1930 / The Best Plays 1929~30

  79. [other] Mantle Burns / 1930 / Welcome China's Chief Actor / Daily News(New York)

  80. [other] Martin John / The Dance: an Exotic Art / New York Times

  81. [other] Martin John / 1930 / The Dance―Japanese art / New York Times

  82. [book] Martin John / 1936 / America Dancing: The Background and Personalities of the Modern Dance / Dodge Publishing

  83. [other] New York Evening Post / 1930 / Soo Yong, Mistress of Ceremonies for Chinese Players, Has Two Ambitions / New York Evening Post

  84. [other] New York Times / 1923 / The Chinese Stage and the Dark Lady of Its Sonnets / New York Times

  85. [other] New York Times / 1927 / Denishawns in Pantomime / New York Times

  86. [other] New York Times / 1930 / Sponsors of Mei Lan-fang / New York Times

  87. [other] New York Times / 1930 / Mei Lan-fang Guest at Tea Party Here / New York Times

  88. [other] New York Times / 1930 / Mei Lan-fang and Troupe in Equity / New York Times

  89. [other] New York Times / 1930 / New Tulip to be Shown / New York Times

  90. [other] New York Times / 1930 / Mei Lan-fang Gives a New Program / New York Times

  91. [other] New York Times / 1930 / Mei Lan-fang Urges Wide Art Sympathies / New York Times

  92. [other] New York Times / 1930 / Tea for Mei Lan-fang / New York Times

  93. [other] New York Times / 1930 / Mrs. Campbell Honors Mei Lan-fang / New York Times

  94. [other] New York Times / 1930 / Mei Lan-fang Praises American Cordiality / New York Times

  95. [other] New York Times / 1930 / China Society Honors Mei Lan-fang / New York Times

  96. [book] New York Times / 1932 / Chinese Group Seek Reform in Theatre / New York Times

  97. [other] New York, Herald Tribune / 1930 / Mei Lan-fang, China's Noted Actor, Seen by Invited Audience at 49th Street Theater / New York, Herald Tribune

  98. [other] Ruhl Arthur / 1930 / Second Nights / New York Herald Tribune

  99. [book] Scott A. C. / 1971 / Mei Lan-fang: The Life and Times of a Peking Actor / Hong Kong University Press

  100. [jounal] The China Critic / 1930 / The American Reception of Mei Lan-fang / The China Critic 3 (16)

  101. [jounal] The China Weekly Review / 1930 / Mei Lan-fang's Successful American Tour! / The China Weekly Review 52 (6)

  102. [jounal] The China Weekly Review / 1937 / Paris Exposition in 1937 to Include Chinese Performances / The China Weekly Review 72 (12)

  103. [other] Warren George C. / 1930 / Mei Lan-fang Playing at Capitol / San Francisco Chronicle

  104. [other] Watkins Maiy F. / 1930 / Some Observations Upon the Art and Methods of Mei Lan-fang, China's Foremost Dancer Actor / New York Herald Tribune

  105. [jounal] Young Stark / 1930 / Mei Lan-fang / The New Republic 62 (796)

  106. [jounal] Young Stark / 1930 / Shall We Have the Horse? / The New Republic 62 (799)

  107. [jounal] Young Stark / 1930 / Mei Lan-fang / Theatre Arts Monthly 14 (4)

  108. [jounal] Young, Stark / 1931 / Little Asides: II / The New Republic 66 (848)

  109. [other] / 1935 / Performances of Mei Lan-fang in Soviet Russia Synopses of Plays and Dances Selected from His Repertoire

  110. [other] / 1935 / Mei Lan-fang in America Reviews and Criticisms