Purpose – The study investigates the impact of consignment on the economic performance in the supply chain with three stages. Through the analysis on distinct forms of consignment application, this study intends to answer to the question of how the consignment should be used in the multi-stage supply chain. Research design, data, and methodology – The proposed mathematical model represents the supply chain system with a manufacturer, a wholesaler, and a retailer. Three different forms of consignment application are considered depending on which stages adapt the consignment, and their system profits are compared with the traditional non-consignment system in numerical examples. Results – The numerical examples show that the serial consignment application performs better than any other forms of consignment as well as the non-consignment system. The additional analysis indicates that the system profit is significantly sensitive to the consignment rate. Conclusions – The outcome of this study implies the potential of consignment to improve the system performance even in the multi-stage supply chain system. Meanwhile, each supply chain member’s preference to the specific form of consignment application could be different depending on which stage he has. All the supply chain members should jointly determine the appropriate consignment rates to obtain the best system performance.


Supply Chain Collaboration, Consignment, Optimization Model.