ABSTRACT

This article examines the origin of the sijo form based on the traditional Korean music scores such as mandaeyŏp (慢大葉, fifteenth to sixteenth century music) and chinjak 1 (眞勺一, twelfth to fifteenth century music) and estimates that sijo originated in the late fifteenth to sixteenth centuries. It is commonly believed that sijo originated in hyangga or Koryŏ kayo and has been sung and enjoyed since the late Koryŏ dynasty (高麗, 918–1392). However, this common perception lacks empirical evidence. Sijo is a sung form and its music originated from the mandaeyŏp (慢大葉) song, so an examination of its musical background is necessary to provide solid evidence to determine its origin. Some researchers have argued that the first sijo song, mandaeyŏp (慢大葉), originated from chinjak 3, but have not provided specific evidence of the relationship between the two compositions. This research investigates the derivation of mandaeyŏp from chinjak 1 (眞勺一) rather than chinjak 3 (眞勺三) on the basis of clear similarities in form and melody between the two types of composition. Because mandaeyŏp shows such concrete influences from chinjak 1 in Taeak hubo (大樂後譜), a collection of popular songs during King Sejo’s reign (世祖, r. 1455–1468), readers have inferred that the time of derivation of mandaeyŏp is close to that of chinjak 1. In fact, mandaeyŏp scores did not emerge before King Sejo’s reign, during the late fifteenth century, but appeared continuously after his reign. Looking at the problem from a literary perspective, sijo poems initially emerged in munjip (文集), or literati’s private collections, and their poetic form is intricately connected with the mandaeyŏp score. This consistent evidence clearly shows that the sijo form originated and developed under the influence of mandaeyŏp scores around the late fifteenth century.

KEYWORD

origin of sijo (時調), mandaeyŏp (慢大葉), chinjak 1 (眞勺一), music, form

REFERENCES(33)open

  1. [book] An Sang / 1987 / Kŭm hapchabo 琴合字譜 [Score for kŏmun’go with fingering] / Kungnip kugagwŏn

  2. [book] / 1989 / Chŭngbo munhŏn pigo 增補文獻備考 [The revised and enlarged edition of the comparative review of records and documents]. Vol. 94 / Kungnip kugagwŏn

  3. [book] Kim Ku / 1992 / Chaamjip 自菴集 [Collected works of Kim Ku] / Minjok munhwa ch’ujinhoe

  4. [web] / Koryŏ sa 高麗史 [History of Koryŏ]. Vol 71

  5. [book] / 1981 / Kŭmbo 琴譜 [Score for kŏmun’go] / Kungnip kugagwŏn

  6. [web] / Sejong sillok 3:1a [1419.1.1] / DB of National Institute of Korean History

  7. [web] / Sŏngjong sillok 219:4b [1488.8.13] / DB of National Institute of Korean History

  8. [book] Sŏ Myŏngŭng / 1981 / Taeak hubo 大樂後譜 [The latter part of the court music score] / Kungnip kugagwŏn

  9. [book] Yang Tŏksu / 1984 / Yanggŭm sinbo (梁琴新譜) [Yang’s new scores for kŏmun’go] / Kungnip kugagwŏn

  10. [book] Yi Hwang / 2003 / Toegye chŏnsŏ 退溪全書 [Collected works of Yi Hwang]. Vol. 16 / Toegyehak yŏn’guwŏn

  11. [book] Yi Hyŏnbo / 1992 / Nongamjip 聾巖集 [Collected works of Yi Hyŏnbo] / Minjok munhwa ch’ujinhoe

  12. [book] Yi Kwangyun / 2005 / Yangsŏjip 瀼西集 [Collected works of Yi Kwangyun] / Minjok munhwa ch’ujinhoe

  13. [book] Yi Tŭgyun / 1984 / Hyŏn’gŭm tongmun yugi 玄琴東文類記 [Records of kŏmun’go] / Kungnip kugagwŏn

  14. [book] Chang Sahun / 1986 / Sijo ŭmak ron [Theories of sijo music] / Seoul taehakkyo ch’ulp’anbu

  15. [book] Ch’oe Chaeryun / 1985 / Chinjak kwa mandaeyŏp [Chinjak and mandaeyŏp] / Seoul taehakkyo ch’ulp’anbu

  16. [jounal] Cho Hŭnguk / 1985 / Yongbi ŏch’ŏn’ga wa sijo hyŏngsik ŭi sanggwansŏng e taehayŏ [On the relationship between Yongbi ŏchŏn’ga and the form of sijo] / Hansin nonmunjip 2 : 199 ~ 220

  17. [book] Cho Yunje / 1937 / Chosŏn siga sagang [General history of Korean poetry] / Tongwangdang

  18. [jounal] Condit, Jonathan / 1979 / A Fifteenth-century Korean Score in Mensural Notation / Musica Asiatica 2 : 1 ~ 87

  19. [book] Condit, Jonathan / 2009 / Music of the Korean Renaissance / Cambridge University Press

  20. [jounal] Han Manyŏng / 1982 / Chosŏn ch’ogi ŭi kagok e taehan yŏn’gu: Mandaeyŏp kwa chungdaeyŏp ŭi kwan’gye [A study on early Chosŏn kagok: Focusing on relations between mandaeyŏp and chungdaeyŏp] / Minjok ŭmakhak 5 : 1 ~ 27

  21. [book] / 1992 / Han’guk minjok munhwa taebaekkwa sajŏn [Encyclopedia of Korean culture] / Han’guk chŏngsin munhwa yŏn’guwŏn

  22. [jounal] Hwang Chunyŏn / 1980 / Kagok ŭi hyŏngsik [The form of kagok] / Han’guk ŭmak yŏn’gu 10 : 87 ~ 94

  23. [jounal] Hwang Chunyŏn / 1985 / Taeyŏp e kwanhan yŏn’gu [Study on taeyŏp] / Yesul nonmunjip 24 : 101 ~ 138

  24. [jounal] 김진희 / 2005 / 시조 시형의 정립 과정에 대하여 -악곡과 관련하여- / 한국시가연구 (19) : 125 ~ 155

  25. [book] Kim Kichung / 1996 / Classical Korean Literature / M. E. Sharpe

  26. [book] Kim Sejung / 2005 / Chŏngganbo ro ingnŭn yet norae [Reading old lyrics in chŏngganbo] / Yesol

  27. [book] Kim Suŏp / 1978 / Sijoron [Theories of sijo] / Ilchogak : 16 ~ 22

  28. [book] Kim Taehaeng / 1986 / Sijo yuhyŏngnon [A study of forms of sijo] / Ewha yŏja taehakkyo ch’ulp’anbu

  29. [jounal] Kwŏn Tuhwan / 1993 / Sijo ŭi palsaeng gwa kiwŏn [The origins and development of sijo] / Kwanak ŏmun yŏn’gu 18 : 21 ~ 45

  30. [book] Song Pangsong / 1984 / Han’guk ŭmak t’ongsa [History of Korean music] / Ilchogak

  31. [book] Sŏng Hogyŏng / 2014 / Sijo munhak [Sijo literature] / Sŏgang taehakkyo ch’ulp’anbu

  32. [book] Yi Nŭngu / 1956 / Chosŏn sijosa [History of sijo in the Chosŏn dynasty] / Immundang

  33. [book] Yi Hyegu / 1975 / Han’guk ŭmak sŏsŏl [An introduction to Korean music] / Seoul taehakkyo ch’ulp’anbu