ABSTRACT

Purpose - Color is perceived to have an effect on humans' cognition and behavior because of its association with specific concepts. Since there are few studies linking color and price presentation, we investigated a constrained condition of consumers' regulatory focus and involvement. Research design, data, and methodology - We performed a 2 (color: red vs. black) x 2 (regulatory focus: prevention vs. promotion) x 2 (involvement: high vs. low) test of our hypothesis. The target product was a portable data storage device (USB) and data from 165 respondents were analyzed. Each condition had two stages. In the first, product information and price were presented. After reviewing the product information, respondents evaluated price attractiveness. In the second stage, respondents filled out regulatory focus and involvement questionnaires. The main variables were color, regulatory focus, and involvement. Therefore, we ran a three-way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to test our hypothesis. Results - When the price was red (vs. black), consumers perceived the red price as more attractive than the black price. However, this effect varied by situation. Specifically, in the low involvement condition among prevention-focused consumers, when the price was in red, price attractiveness was higher than when the price was in black. However, for promotion-focused consumers, there was no difference in the price color effect. In the high involvement condition, promotion-focused consumers showed stronger price attractiveness for the red price than the black price. However, the effect of price color diminished for prevention-focused consumers. That is, prevention-focused consumers did not reveal a different price perception between red versus black in the high involvement condition. Conclusions - This research contributes by academically linking the effects of color to price attractiveness, and focusing on the interaction of regulatory focus and involvement. When involvement is low, the effect of red disappeared for promotion-focused consumers, whereas the same happened for prevention-focused consumers under the condition of high involvement.

KEYWORD

Effect of Color, Price Presentation, Regulatory Focus, Involvement, Price Attractiveness

REFERENCES(50)open

  1. [jounal] Bagchi, Rajesh / 2013 / The effect of red background color on willingness-to-pay : The moderating role of selling mechanism / Journal of Consumer Research 39 (1) : 947 ~ 960

  2. [jounal] Bellizi, Joseph A. / 1983 / The effects of color in store design / Journal of Retailing 59 (1) : 21 ~ 45

  3. [jounal] Bellizi, Joseph A. / 1992 / Environmental color, consumer feelings and purchase likelihood / Psychology and Marketing 9 (5) : 347 ~ 363

  4. [jounal] Celsi, Richard L. / 1988 / The role of involvement in attention and comprehension processes / Journal of Consumer Research 15 (2) : 210 ~ 224

  5. [jounal] Cesario, Joseph / 2004 / Regulatory fit and persuasion: Transfer from feeling right / Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 86 (3) : 388 ~ 404

  6. [jounal] Chernev, Alexander / 2004 / Goal-attribute compatibility in consumer choice / Journal of Consumer Psychology 14 (1,2) : 141 ~ 150

  7. [jounal] Chernev, Alexander / 2004 / Goal orientation and consumer preference for the status quo / Journal of Consumer Research 31 (3) : 557 ~ 565

  8. [jounal] Coulter, Keith S. / 2005 / Size does matter : The effects of magnitude representation congruency on price perceptions and purchase likelihood / Journal of Consumer Psychology 15 (1) : 64 ~ 76

  9. [jounal] Coulter, Keith S. / 2009 / The effects of physical distance between regular and sale prices on numerical difference perceptions / Journal of Consumer Psychology 19 (2) : 144 ~ 157

  10. [jounal] Crowe, Ellen / 1997 / Regulatory focus and strategic inclinations : Promotion and prevention in decision making / Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Process 69 (2) : 117 ~ 172

  11. [jounal] Crowley, Ayn E. / 1993 / The two-dimensional impact of color on shopping / Marketing Letters 4 (1) : 59 ~ 69

  12. [jounal] Darke, Peter R. / 2005 / Effects of pricing and promotion on consumer perceptions : it depends on how you frame it / Journal of Retailing 81 (1) : 35 ~ 47

  13. [jounal] Elliot, Andrew. J. / 2007 / Color and psychological functioning : The effect of red on performance attainment / Journal of Experimental Psychology : General 136 (1) : 154 ~ 168

  14. [jounal] Elliot, Andrew. J. / 2009 / The effect of red on avoidance behavior in achievement contexts / Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 35 (3) : 365 ~ 375

  15. [jounal] Friedman, Ronald S. / 2001 / The effects of promotion and prevention cues on creativity / Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81 (6) : 1001 ~ 1013

  16. [jounal] Gorn, Gerald. J. / 1997 / Effects of color as an executional cue in advertising : They’re in the shade / Management Science 43 (10) : 1387 ~ 1400

  17. [jounal] Gorn, Gerald. J. / 2004 / Waiting for the web : How screen color affects time perception / Journal of Marketing Research 41 (2) : 215 ~ 225

  18. [jounal] Hanss, Daniel / 2012 / Active red sports car and relaxed purple-blue van : Affective qualities predict color appropriateness for car types / Journal of Consumer Behavior 11 (5) : 368 ~ 380

  19. [jounal] Hardesty, David M. / 2003 / Consumer evaluations of different promotion types and price presentations : the moderating role of promotional benefit level / Journal of Retailing 79 (1) : 17 ~ 25

  20. [jounal] Haws, Kelly L. / 2010 / An assessment of chronic regulatory focus measures / Journal of Marketing Research 47 (5) : 967 ~ 982

  21. [jounal] Higgins, E. Tory / 1997 / Beyond pleasure and pain / American Psychologist 52 (12) : 1280 ~ 1300

  22. [jounal] Higgins, E. Tory / 2002 / How self-regulation creates distinct values : The case of promotion and prevention decision making / Journal of Consumer Psychology 12 (3) : 177 ~ 191

  23. [jounal] Higgins, E. / 1997 / Emotional responses to goal attainment : Strength of regulatory focus as moderator / Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 72 (3) : 515 ~ 525

  24. [jounal] 황인석 / 2012 / 상품 컬러가 구매의도에 미치는 영향: 컬러 선호도와 적합도를 중심으로 / 마케팅연구 27 (1) : 27 ~ 43

  25. [jounal] Jain, Shallendra P. / 2006 / When more may be less : The effects of regulatory focus on responses to different comparative frames / Journal of Consumer Research 33 (3) : 91 ~ 98

  26. [jounal] 김경미 / 2008 / 소비자의 조절초점과 팽창가격 할인광고의 효과 / 마케팅연구 23 (4) : 197 ~ 218

  27. [jounal] 김영조 / 2014 / 광고모델이 제품평가에 미치는 영향: 색상의 역할 / 마케팅관리연구 19 (1) : 65 ~ 75

  28. [jounal] 김영두 / 2011 / 조절초점과 기대수익-위험 정보 구성이 금융투자상품의 선택에 미치는 영향 / 소비자학연구 22 (4) : 103 ~ 134

  29. [jounal] Labrecque, Lauren I. / 2012 / Exciting red and competent blue : The importance of color in marketing / Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 40 (5) : 711 ~ 727

  30. [book] Lee, Angela Y. / 2009 / Frontiers of Social Psychology:Social Psychology of Consumer Behavior / Psychology Press

  31. [jounal] Lee, Angela Y. / 2004 / Bringing the frame into focus: the influence of regulatory fit on processing fluency and persuasion / Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 86 (2) : 205 ~ 218

  32. [jounal] 이병관 / 2014 / 프랜차이즈 본부와 가맹점 간 목표불일치가 가맹점의 조절초점, 성과, 그리고 기회주의에 미치는 영향 / 유통과학연구 12 (2) : 39 ~ 47

  33. [jounal] 이윤재 / 2012 / 색이 메타인지적 과정을 통해 상품태도에 미치는 효과: 빨간색과 성적매력의 개념적 연계를 중심으로 / 마케팅연구 27 (1) : 135 ~ 160

  34. [jounal] Liberman, Nira / 1999 / Promotion and prevention choices between stability and change / Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77 (6) : 1135 ~ 1145

  35. [jounal] Mehta, Ravi / 2009 / Blue or red? Exploring the effect of color on cognitive task performance / Science 323 (5918) : 1226 ~ 1229

  36. [jounal] Middlestadt, Susan E. / 1990 / The effect of background and ambient color on product attributes and beliefs / Advances in Consumer Research 17 (1) : 244 ~ 249

  37. [jounal] Petty, Richard E. / 1981 / Issue involvement as moderator of the effects on attitude of advertising content and context / Advances in Consumer Research 8 (1) : 20 ~ 24

  38. [jounal] Petty, Richard E. / 1983 / Central and peripheral routes to advertising effectiveness : the moderating role of involvement / Journal of Consumer Research 10 (4) : 135 ~ 145

  39. [jounal] Puccinelli, Nancy M. / 2013 / Are men seduced by red? The effect of red versus black prices on price perceptions / Journal of Retailing 89 (2) : 115 ~ 125

  40. [jounal] Richins, Marsha L. / 1986 / After the new wears off : The temporal context of product involvement / Journal of Consumer Research 13 (2) : 280 ~ 285

  41. [jounal] Shah, James / 1997 / Expectancy × value Effects : Regulatory focus as determinant of magnitude and direction / Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 73 (3) : 447 ~ 458

  42. [jounal] Soldat, Alexander / 1997 / Color as an environmental processing cue : external affective cues can directly affect processing strategy without affecting mood / Social Cognition 15 (1) : 55 ~ 71

  43. [jounal] Summerville, Amy / 2008 / Self-report measures of individual differences in regulatory focus : A cautionary note / Journal of Research in Personality 42 (1) : 247 ~ 254

  44. [jounal] Walsh, Lynn M. / 1990 / Color preference and food choice among children / Journal of Psychology 124 (6) : 645 ~ 653

  45. [jounal] Wang, Jing / 2006 / The role of regulatory focus in preference construction / Journal of Marketing research 43 (1) : 28 ~ 38

  46. [jounal] Wexner, Lois B. / 1954 / The degree to which colors(hues)are associated with mood-tones / Journal of Applied Psychology 38 (6) : 432 ~ 435

  47. [jounal] Wilson, Glenn D. / 1966 / Arousal properties of red versus green / Perceptual and Motor Skills 23 (3) : 947 ~ 949

  48. [jounal] 유창조 / 2011 / 할인크기와 조절초점에 따른 팽창가격할인 효과에 관한 비교분석 / 소비자학연구 22 (2) : 253 ~ 275

  49. [jounal] 윤태웅 / 2011 / 메시지 방향성이 광고 반응에 미치는 효과 연구 / 한국심리학회지: 소비자·광고 12 (1) : 169 ~ 189

  50. [jounal] Zaichkowsky, Judith L. / 1985 / Measuring the involvement construct / Journal of Consumer Research 12 (4) : 341 ~ 352