ABSTRACT

The Ministry for Health & Welfare Affairs has marked a major milestone in a new mental health paradigm emphasizing the importance of preventative and early interventions. In this context, the development of a reliable and valid screening tool for mental disorders has become a high priority. A consensus has recently emerged among experts that there is a paucity of screening tools available for anxiety disorders and none of them is sufficient in its sensitivity and specificity. The development of new screening approaches for anxiety disorders was therefore recommended. In the current study, the multi-disciplinary research team comprised of clinical psychologists, psychiatrists and psychometricians, conducted a systematic review of existing screening tools for anxiety disorders to analyze strengths and limitations of the tools and to summarize the background and rationale for development of the new Korean screening tool for anxiety disorders (K-ANX). The K-ANX aims to cover recent diagnostic criteria from the DSM-5 and RDoC in a concise manner with sufficient diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. We also summarize the sub-domains of anxiety disorders and develop 273 preliminary item pools of the K-ANX. A preliminary study using the K-ANX was then conducted with 150 individuals whice showed that it demonstrates high concurrent validity with the BAI. Finally, the directions for the validation of the final K-ANX project were discussed.

KEYWORD

screening tool, general anxiety disorders, evidence-based assessment, item response theory

REFERENCES(40)open

  1. [book] American Psychiatric Association. / 1968 / Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders / American Psychiatric Press

  2. [book] American Psychiatric Association. / 1987 / Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders / American Psychiatric Press

  3. [book] American Psychiatric Association. / 1994 / Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders / American Psychiatric Press

  4. [book] American Psychiatric Association. / 2013 / Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders(DSM-5®) / American Psychiatric Pub

  5. [jounal] Beck, A. T. / 1988 / An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety : Psychometric properties / Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 56 : 893 ~ 897

  6. [jounal] Beck, A. T. / 1997 / Use of the Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories for primary care with medical outpatients / Assessment 4 : 211 ~ 219

  7. [jounal] Bieling, P. J. / 1998 / The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Trait version : Structure and content re-examined / Behaviour Research and Therapy 36 : 777 ~ 788

  8. [jounal] Chung, S. K. / 2006 / 2006 Korean anxiety: Report on anxiety research results / Anxiety and Mood 2 : 115 ~ 121

  9. [jounal] Dillon, D. G. / 2014 / Peril and pleasure : An rdoc‐inspired examination of threat responses and reward processing in anxiety and depression / Depression and Anxiety 31 : 233 ~ 249

  10. [jounal] Gibbons, R. D. / 2014 / Development of the CAT-ANX : A Computerized Adaptive Test for Anxiety / American Journal of Psychiatry 171 : 187 ~ 194

  11. [jounal] Hahn, D. W. / 1996 / Korean adaptation of Spielberger’s STAI(K-STAI) / Korean Journal of Health Psychology 1 : 1 ~ 14

  12. [jounal] Hahn, D. W. / 1993 / A study for the standardization of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory / Journal of Student Guidance 10 : 214 ~ 222

  13. [jounal] Hamilton, M. A. X. / 1959 / The assessment of anxiety states by rating / British Journal of Medical Psychology 32 : 50 ~ 55

  14. [jounal] 한은경 / 2003 / 한국판 Beck Anxiety Inventory의 요인구조: 정신과 환자를 대상으로 한 확인적 요인분석의 적용 / Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology 22 (1) : 261 ~ 270

  15. [confproc] Jahng, S. M. / 2014 / Basics and applications of Item Response Theory / 2014 Korean Psychological Association Annual Conference Program & Abstract 1 : 207

  16. [thesis] Jong-Geun, S. / 2015 / Validation of the Generalized Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and GAD-2 in patients with migraine

  17. [jounal] Kessler, R. C. / 2012 / Twelve‐month and lifetime prevalence and lifetime morbid risk of anxiety and mood disorders in the United States / International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 21 : 169 ~ 184

  18. [jounal] Kim, J. T. / 1978 / A study based on the standardization of the STAI for Korea / The New Medical Journal 21 : 69 ~ 75

  19. [thesis] Kwon, S. M. / 1992 / Differential roles of dysfunctional attitude and automatic thoughts in depression: An integrated cognitive model of depression

  20. [jounal] Lee, J. H. / 1996 / Development of the Korean form of Zung’s self-rating anxiety scale / Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine 13 : 279 ~ 294

  21. [jounal] Lee, K. S. / 2008 / Factor analysis of the Korean version of the state-trait anxiety inventory in patients with anxiety disorder / Anxiety and Mood 4 : 104 ~ 110

  22. [jounal] Leyfer, O. T. / 2006 / Examination of the utility of the Beck Anxiety Inventory and its factors as a screener for anxiety disorders / Journal of Anxiety Disorders 20 : 444 ~ 458

  23. [jounal] Lim, Y. J. / 2008 / The Penn State worry questionnaire: Psychometric properties of the Korean version / Depression and Anxiety 25 : 97 ~ 103

  24. [jounal] Lin, E. H. / 1991 / Frustrating patients / Journal of General Internal Medicine 6 : 241 ~ 246

  25. [jounal] Maier, W. / 1988 / The Hamilton Anxiety Scale : Reliability, validity and sensitivity to change in anxiety and depressive disorders / Journal of Affective Disorders 14 : 61 ~ 68

  26. [jounal] Maier, W. / 2000 / Generalized anxiety disorder(ICD-10)in primary care from a cross-cultural perspective : A valid diagnostic entity? / Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 101 : 29 ~ 36

  27. [jounal] Meyer, T. J. / 1990 / Development and validation of the Penn State worry questionnaire / Behaviour Research and Therapy 28 : 487 ~ 495

  28. [jounal] McQuaid, J. R. / 2000 / Use of brief psychiatric screening measures in a primary care sample / Depression and Anxiety 12 : 21 ~ 29

  29. [jounal] Newman, M. G. / 2002 / Preliminary reliability and validity of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV : A revised self-report diagnostic measure of generalized anxiety disorder / Behavior Therapy 33 : 215 ~ 233

  30. [jounal] Olatunji, B. O. / 2006 / Dimensionality of somatic complaints : Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale / Journal of Anxiety Disorders 20 : 543 ~ 561

  31. [jounal] 박희진 / 2014 / The Usefulness of the Korean Version of Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Screening Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis / PSYCHIATRY INVESTIGATION 11 (1) : 12 ~ 17

  32. [jounal] Sanislow, C. A. / 2010 / Developing constructs for psychopathology research : Research domain criteria / Journal of Abnormal Psychology 119 : 631 ~ 639

  33. [web] Seoul National University College of Medicine & Ministry for Health & Welfare Affairs / The Epidemiological Survey of Mental disorders in Korea

  34. [jounal] Shear, M. K. / 2001 / Reliability and validity of a structured interview guide for the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale(SIGH‐A) / Depression and Anxiety 13 : 166 ~ 178

  35. [book] Spielberger, C. D. / 1983 / Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory STAI(form Y) / Consulting Psychologists Press

  36. [book] Spielberger, R. / 1970 / Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory / Consulting Psychologists Press

  37. [jounal] Spitzer, R. L. / 2006 / A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder : The GAD-7 / Archives of Internal Medicine 166 : 1092 ~ 1097

  38. [jounal] Sung, P. Y. / 1997 / A clinical study on the Korean version of Beck Anxiety Inventory : Comparative study of patient and non-patient / Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology 16 : 185 ~ 197

  39. [jounal] Wittchen, H. U. / 2002 / Generalized anxiety and depression in primary care : Prevalence, recognition, and management / Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 63 : 24 ~ 34

  40. [jounal] Zung, W. W. / 1971 / A rating instrument for anxiety disorders / Psychosomatics 12 : 371 ~ 379