ABSTRACT

Service recovery is the actions taken by a service provider with the intention of changing customers' negative impressions on the service to positive ones. The current study reviewed factors to consider when sending an apology email to customers who had bad or unsatisfactory service experiences. Among perceptual factors, pictures, tables, graphs, logos, and bright colors were shown to have positive effects when put in the email. Cultural differences in effective perceptual factors were also examined. Among cognitive factors, the power of contents and monetary rewards were identified as important factors. The results suggest that these factors may have the same effects when used in apology made through other types of media, such as letter, webpage, or SNS. Implications and suggestions are also discussed.

KEYWORD

service recovery, service failure, perceptual factors, cognitive factors

REFERENCES(74)open

  1. [jounal] 김원섭 / 2010 / 교육매체 활용 : 전자우편의 수업적 활용 지침 / 한국실천공학교육학회논문지 2 (2) : 83 ~ 90

  2. [jounal] 김흥규 / 2012 / 브랜드 로고(logo) 디자인 전략 / 주관성 연구 24 (24) : 85 ~ 100

  3. [jounal] 박상규 / 2001 / 인터넷 웹사이트의 서비스 회복과 성과에 관한 연구: 서비스품질, 서비스가치, 고객만족의 매개적 역할을 중심으로 / 경상논총 19 (2) : 41 ~ 61

  4. [jounal] 박수진 / 2012 / 동서양 문화 특성에 따른 그래픽의 표현과 해석 -미국 원본과 한국 번역본의 표지 그래픽 비교를 통하여- / 디자인학연구 25 (2) : 157 ~ 168

  5. [confproc] 박정은 / 2007 / 브랜드 로고의 감성이미지가 제품이미지에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구 / 한국디자인학회 학술발표대회 논문집

  6. [jounal] 박수진 / 2004 / 사진 이미지와 관련된 감성 어휘 분석 및 색 유무에 따른 감성 반응 비교 / 감성과학 7 (1) : 41 ~ 49

  7. [jounal] 송화선 / 2012 / Relaxation과 Distress 감성 표현을 위한 색채 연구 / 조형미디어학 15 (1) : 93 ~ 102

  8. [jounal] 윤성욱 / 2005 / 결정적 사건기법을 이용한 호텔 고객불평과 복구전략분석 / Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science(마케팅과학연구) 15 (1) : 61 ~ 79

  9. [jounal] 윤성욱 / 2002 / CIT를 이용한 서비스실패와 복구에 관한 연구 / 아시아마케팅저널 4 (4) : 1 ~ 27

  10. [jounal] 윤성욱 / 2004 / 서비스 복구 형태가 고객관계에 미치는 영향 : 음식점을 대상으로 한 CIT 접근 / 소비자학연구 15 (1) : 135 ~ 158

  11. [jounal] 전달영 / 2005 / 인터넷이용자 유형에 따른 인터넷광고 형태별 광고효과 비교 - P세대를 중심으로 / 경영교육연구 40 (40) : 435 ~ 454

  12. [jounal] 최훈 / 2012 / 스마트폰 환경에서 웹 애플리케이션 서비스 실패 요인 및 서비스 회복에 관한 연구 / 경영과 정보연구 31 (1) : 205 ~ 219

  13. [jounal] Ajzen, I. / 1991 / The theory of planned behavior / Organizational Behavior and Human decision Processes 50 (2) : 179 ~ 211

  14. [jounal] Asch, S. E. / 1946 / Forming impressions of personality / The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 41 (3) : 258

  15. [jounal] Baker, M. J. / 2003 / Data collection-questionnaire design / The marketing review 3 (3) : 343 ~ 370

  16. [jounal] Bell, C. R. / 1987 / Service breakdown : The road of recovery / Management Review 76 (10) : 32 ~ 35

  17. [jounal] Bernard, M. / 2001 / User expectations for the location of web objects / Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 31 : 171 ~ 172

  18. [jounal] Bitner, M. J. / 1990 / The Service encounter diagnosing favorable and unfavorable incidents / Journal of Marketing 54 (1) : 71 ~ 84

  19. [book] Blake, R. / 2005 / Perception / McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/ Languages

  20. [jounal] Blodgett, J. G. / 1997 / The effects of customer service on consumer complaining behavior / Journal of Service Marketing 9 (4) : 31 ~ 42

  21. [jounal] Boulding, W. / 1993 / A dynamic process model of service quiality : form expectation to behavioral intentions / Journal of marketing 54 (1) : 71 ~ 84

  22. [book] Brandt, H. / 1945 / The Psychology of Seeing / The Philosophical library

  23. [jounal] Cadotte, E. R. / 1987 / Expectations and norms in models of consumer satisfaction / Journal of Marketing research 24 (3) : 305 ~ 314

  24. [jounal] Chuang, S. C. / 2012 / The effect of service failure types and service recovery on customer satisfaction : a mental accounting perspective / The Service Industries Journal 32 (2) : 257 ~ 271

  25. [jounal] Choi, S. / 2008 / Perceived controllability and service expectation : Influences on customer reactions following service failure / Journal of Business Research 61 (1) : 24 ~ 30

  26. [jounal] Djamasbi, S. / 2010 / Generation Y, web design, and eye tracking / International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 68 (5) : 307 ~ 323

  27. [confproc] Faraday, P. / 2000 / Visually critiquing web pages / 6th Conference on Human Factors and the Web : 1 ~ 13

  28. [book] Foddy, W. / 1993 / Constructing questions for interviews / Cambridge UP

  29. [book] Goldstein, B. / 2008 / Sensation and perception / Cengage learning

  30. [book] Grabe, M. / 2000 / Integrating the internet for meaningful learning / Houghton Mifflin Company

  31. [jounal] Gronroos, C. / 1988 / Service quality : the six criteria of good perceived service quality / Review of business 9 (3) : 10 ~ 13

  32. [jounal] Hart, C. W. / 1988 / The power of unconditional service guarantees / Harvard Business review 66 (4) : 54 ~ 62

  33. [jounal] Hart, C. W. / 1989 / The profitable art of service recovery / Harvard business review 68 (4) : 148 ~ 156

  34. [jounal] Hoffman, K. D. / 1995 / Tracking service failure and employee recovery efforts / Journal of Service Marketing 9 (2) : 49 ~ 61

  35. [jounal] Huang, S. / 2012 / The rating consistency of aesthetic preferences for icon-background color combinations / Applied Ergonomics 43 : 141 ~ 150

  36. [jounal] Hunt, R. R. / 1995 / The subtlety of distinctiveness : What von Restorff really did / Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 2 (1) : 105 ~ 112

  37. [jounal] Hurlbert, A. C. / 2007 / Biological components of sex differences in color preference / Current Biology 17 (16) : 623 ~ 625

  38. [jounal] Isen, A. / 1985 / The influence of positive affect on the unusualness of word associations / Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 48 (6) : 1413 ~ 1426

  39. [jounal] Johnston, R. / 1999 / Service recovery strategies for single and double deviation scenarios / Service Industries Journal 19 (2) : 69 ~ 82

  40. [jounal] Karande, K. / 2007 / Recovery voice and satisfaction after service failure / Journal of Srvice Research 10 (2) : 187 ~ 203

  41. [jounal] Keaveney, S. M. / 1995 / Customer switching behaviour in service industries : An exploratory study / Journal of Marketing 59 (2) : 71 ~ 82

  42. [jounal] Kelley, S. W. / 1994 / Antecedent to customer expectation to service recovery / Journal of Academy of Marketing Science 22 : 52 ~ 61

  43. [jounal] Kuperman, V. / 2010 / The effect of word position on eye-movements in sentence and paragraph reading / The Experimental Psychology Society 63 (9) : 1838 ~ 1857

  44. [jounal] Liao, H. / 2007 / Transforming service employees and climate: A multilevel, multi-source and examination of transformational leadership in building long-term service relationships / Journal of Applied Psychology 92 (4) : 1006 ~ 1019

  45. [jounal] Ling, J. / 2002 / The effect of text and background colour on visual search of Web pages / Displays 23 (5) : 223 ~ 230

  46. [jounal] Manning, H. / 1998 / Why most web sites fail / Interactive Technology Series 3 (7) : 54 ~ 64

  47. [jounal] Masuda, T. / 2006 / Culture and change blindness / Cognitive Science 30 (2) : 381 ~ 399

  48. [jounal] Mattila, A. S. / 1999 / An examination of factors affecting service recovery in an restaurant setting / Journal of Hospitality & Tourism 23 : 284 ~ 299

  49. [jounal] Mattila, A. S. / 2001 / The effectiveness of service recovery in a multi-industry setting / Journal of Service Marketing 15 (7) : 583 ~ 596

  50. [jounal] McColl-Kennedy, J. R. / 2003 / The Role of Gender in Reactions in Sevice Failure and Recovery / Journal of Service Research 5 (3) : 251 ~ 266

  51. [jounal] Miller, N. / 1959 / Recency and primacy in persuasion as a function of the timing of speeches and measurements / The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 59 (1) : 1 ~ 9

  52. [jounal] Miller, J. L. / 2000 / Service Recovery : A framework and empirical investigation / Journal of Operations Management 18 : 387 ~ 400

  53. [confproc] Murch, G. M. / 1985 / Colour Graphics-Blessing or Ballyhoo? / Computer Graphics Forum 4 (2) : 127 ~ 135

  54. [jounal] Nagabhushan, P. / 2010 / Text Extraction in Complex Color Document Images for Enhanced Readability / Intelligent Information Management 2 : 120 ~ 133

  55. [confproc] Naz, K / 2004 / Color-emotion associations: Past experience and personal preference / AIC 2004 Color and Paints, Interim Meeting of the International Color Association, Proceedings 5 : 31 ~ 34

  56. [book] Nisbett, R. / 2004 / The geography of thought: How Asians and Westerners think differently... and why / Simon and Schuster

  57. [jounal] Palmer, A. / 2000 / Equity and Repurchase Intention Following Service Failure / Journal of Sevice Marketing 14 (6) : 513 ~ 526

  58. [jounal] Palmer, S. E. / 2010 / An ecological valence theory of human color preference / Procedings of the National Academy of Science 107 (19) : 8877 ~ 8882

  59. [book] Porter, L. / 1997 / Creating the virtual classroom: Distance learning with the Internet / John Wiley & Sons, Inc

  60. [confproc] Prasad, G. / 2012 / Text, Table and Graph - which is faster & more accurate to understand? / IEEE Fourth International Conference on Technology for Education : 126 ~ 131

  61. [book] Sternberg, R. / 2005 / 인지심리학 / 박학사

  62. [jounal] Schloss, K. B. / 2011 / Aesthetic response to color combinations : preference, harmony, and similarity / Attention, Perception, Psychophysics 73 : 551 ~ 571

  63. [jounal] Schloss, K. B. / 2011 / The role of spatial organization in preference for color pairs / Perception-London 40 (9) : 1063

  64. [book] Schuman, H. / 1981 / Questions and answers in attitude surveys: Experiments on question form, wording, and context / Academic Press

  65. [jounal] Shevell, S. K. / 1978 / The dual role of chromatic backgrounds in color perception / Vision research 18 (12) : 1649 ~ 1661

  66. [jounal] Smith, A. / 1998 / An experimental investigation of customer reactions to sevice failure and recovery encounters: Paradox or peril? / Journal of Service Research 1 (1) : 65 ~ 81

  67. [jounal] Smith, A. / 1999 / A model of customer satisfaction with service encounters involving failure and recovery / Journal of Marketing Research : 356 ~ 372

  68. [jounal] Smith, J. S. / 2010 / Empirical profiles of service recovery systems : The maturity perspective / Journal of Service Research 13 (1) : 111 ~ 125

  69. [jounal] Sweeny, P. D. / 1997 / Process and outcome : Gender differences in assessment of justice / Journal of Organizational Behavior 7 (1) : 83 ~ 98

  70. [jounal] Taylor, C. / 2013 / Color preferences in infants and adults are different / Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 20 (5) : 916 ~ 922

  71. [jounal] Walraven, J. / 1976 / Discounting the background-the missing link in the explanation of chromatic induction / Vision Research 16 (3) : 289 ~ 295

  72. [jounal] Wirtz, J. / 2004 / Consumer responses to compensation, speed of recovery and apology after a service failure / International Journal of Service Industry Management 15 (2) : 150 ~ 166

  73. [jounal] Wong, N. Y. / 2004 / The role of culture in the perception of service recovery / Journal of Business Research 57 : 957 ~ 963

  74. [jounal] Zemke, R. / 1994 / Service Recovery / Executive Excellence 11 (9) : 17 ~ 18