초록

도덕성은 이타성의 잠재적인 지표로서 타인에 대한 긍정적 인상형성을 촉진하는 것으로 알려져 있다. 그러나 인상형성 대상이 지닌 도덕적 판단 경향성(moral decision style)이 인상형성과정에 미치는 영향에 대한 체계적인 접근은 아직 시도된 바 없다. 본 연구는 도덕적 딜레마 시나리오를 사용하여 공리주의적(utilitarian) 성향과 의무론적(deontological) 성향을 지닌 서로 다른 두 인물이 지각되는 방식에 차이가 있는지 알아보고자 하였다. 연구 1에서는 공리주의자와 의무론자의 인상이 따뜻함 차원과 유능함 차원 및 성격5요인, 호감도의 측면에서 어떻게 다른지 알아보았다. 참가자들은 의무론자를 상대적으로 더 따뜻한 사람으로 지각하는 반면 공리주의자는 더 유능할 것이라고 평가하였으며, 의무론자가 공리주의자보다 더 선호되는 패턴이 나타났다. 연구 2에서는 피험자-간 설계를 적용하여 연구 1의 결과를 재확인하는 한편, 도덕적 판단경향성과 호감도의 관계에서 따뜻함이 지니는 매개효과를 검증하여, 두 변인에 대한 따뜻함의 완전매개효과를 확인하였다. 연구 3에서는 공리주의자와 의무론자가 서로 다른 의사결정 영역에서 차별적인 선호도를 지니는지 알아보기 위해 참가자로 하여금 사회적 갈등상황과 비사회적 갈등상황 하에서 조언을 받고 싶은 대상을 고르도록 하는 과제를 수행하게 하였다. 의무론자는 사회적 갈등상황에서, 공리주의자는 비사회적 갈등상황에서 조언을 구할 대상으로 각각 선호되는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구는 대상이 지닌 도덕적 판단경향성에 의해 인상형성결과가 달라진다는 것을 보여주었으며, 이는 대인지각에서 도덕성에 대한 보다 입체적인 접근이 필요할 수 있음을 시사한다.

키워드

도덕적 딜레마, 도덕적 판단 경향성, 인상형성, 공리주의, 의무론, 따뜻함, 유능함, 호감

참고문헌(71)open

  1. [학위논문] 최소영 / 2010 / Who makes utilitarian judgments? : experimental study and fMRI study

  2. [학술지] Abele, A. E. / 2007 / Agency and communion from the perspective of self versus others / Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 93 (5) : 751

  3. [학술지] Baron, J. / 1997 / The illusion of morality as self-interest : A reason to cooperate in social dilemmas / Psychological Science 8 : 330 ~ 335

  4. [학술지] Baron, J. / 2004 / Omission bias, individual differences, and normality / Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 94 (2) : 74 ~ 85

  5. [학술지] Bettencourt, B. / 2001 / Status differences and in-group bias : A meta-analytic examination of the effects of status stability, status legitimacy, and group permeability / Psychological Bulletin 127 (4) : 520

  6. [단행본] Byrne, D. / 1971 / The Attraction Paradigm / Academic Press

  7. [단행본] Chemers, M. M. / 2001 / Blackwell handbook of social psychology: Group Processes’ / Blackwell : 376 ~ 399

  8. [학술지] Christensen, J. F. / 2012 / Moral dilemmas in cognitive neuroscience of moral decision-making : A principled review / Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 36 (4) : 1249 ~ 1264

  9. [학술지] Cislak, A. / 2008 / Agency and communion are inferred from actions serving interests of self or others / European Journal of Social Psychology 38 (7) : 1103 ~ 1110

  10. [학술지] Cohen, S. / 1985 / Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis / Psychological Bulletin 98 : 310 ~ 357

  11. [학술지] Cuddy, A. J. / 2008 / Warmth and competence as universal dimensions of social perception : The stereotype content model and the BIAS map / Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 40 : 61 ~ 149

  12. [학술지] Cuddy, A. J. / 2004 / When professionals become mothers, warmth doesn't cut the ice / Journal of Social Issues 60 (4) : 701 ~ 718

  13. [학술지] Cuddy, A. J. / 2007 / The BIAS map : behaviors from intergroup affect and stereotypes / Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 92 (4) : 631

  14. [학술지] Cushman, F. / 2006 / The role of conscious reasoning and intuition in moral judgment testing three principles of harm / Psychological Science 17 (12) : 1082 ~ 1089

  15. [단행본] Cutrona, C. E. / 1990 / Social support: An interactional view / John Wiley &Sons : 319 ~ 366

  16. [학술지] De Bruin, E. N. / 1999 / Impression formation and cooperative behavior / European Journal of Social Psychology 29 (23) : 305 ~ 328

  17. [단행본] Deutsch, M. / 2011 / Conflict, Interdependence, and Justice / New York : 247 ~ 271

  18. [학술지] Fiske, S. T. / 2002 / A model of(often mixed)stereotype content : Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition / Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 82 (6) : 878

  19. [학술지] Fiske, S. T. / 2007 / Universal dimensions of social cognition : Warmth and competence / Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (2) : 77 ~ 83

  20. [단행본] Foot, P. / 1978 / The problem of abortion and the doctrine of the double effect. In: Foot, P. Virtues and vices and other essays in moral philosophy / Blackwell

  21. [학술지] Fumagalli, M. / 2010 / Gender-related differences in moral judgments / Cognitive Processing 11 (3) : 219 ~ 226

  22. [학술지] Goodwin, G. P. / 2014 / Moral character predominates in person perception and evaluation / Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 106 (1) : 148

  23. [학술지] Gosling, S. D. / 2003 / A very brief measure of the Big-Five personality domains / Journal of Research in Personality 37 (6) : 504 ~ 528

  24. [학술지] Greene, J. / 2005 / 19 Cognitive Neuroscience and the Structure of the Moral Mind / The innate mind 1 : 338 ~ 353

  25. [단행본] Greene, J. D. / 2007 / The secret joke of Kant’s soul / MIT Press : 59 ~ 66

  26. [학술지] Greene, J. / 2002 / How(and where)does moral judgment work? / Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (12) : 517 ~ 523

  27. [학술지] Greene, J. D. / 2008 / Cognitive load selectively interferes with utilitarian moral judgment / Cognition 107 (3) : 1144 ~ 1154

  28. [학술지] Greene, J. D. / 2004 / The neural bases of cognitive conflict and control in moral judgment / Neuron 44 (2) : 389 ~ 400

  29. [학술지] Greene, J. D. / 2001 / An fMRI investigation of emotional engagement in moral judgment / Science 293 (5537) : 2105 ~ 2108

  30. [학술지] Griffitt, W. B. / 1966 / Interpersonal attraction as a function of self-concept and personality similarity-dissimilarity / Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 4 : 581 ~ 584

  31. [학술지] Haidt, J. / 2004 / Intuitive ethics : How innately prepared intuitions generate culturally variable virtues / Daedalus 133 (4) : 55 ~ 66

  32. [학술지] Han, H. / 2014 / Cultural influences on the neural correlate of moral decision making processes / Behavioural Brain Research 259 : 215 ~ 228

  33. [학술지] Hauser, M. / 2007 / A dissociation between moral judgments and justifications / Mind & Language 22 (1) : 1 ~ 21

  34. [학술지] Harenski, C. L. / 2006 / Neural correlates of regulating negative emotions related to moral violations / Neuroimage 30 (1) : 313 ~ 324

  35. [학술지] Heekeren, H. R. / 2003 / An fMRI study of simple ethical decisionmaking / Neuroreport 14 (9) : 1215 ~ 1219

  36. [학술지] Helgeson, V. S. / 2003 / Social support and quality of life / Quality of life research 12 (1) : 25 ~ 31

  37. [학술지] Higgins, T. E. / 1977 / Category accessibility and impression formation / Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 13 (2) : 141 ~ 154

  38. [학술지] Hofmann, W. / 2010 / Immediate affect as a basis for intuitive moral judgement : An adaptation of the affect misattribution procedure / Cognition and emotion 24 (3) : 522 ~ 535

  39. [학술지] Hogan, R. / 1971 / An extension of the similarity-attraction hypothesis to the study of vocational behavior. Center for Social Organization of Schools Report / John Hopkins University 105 : 8

  40. [단행본] House, J. S. / 1981 / Work stress and social support / Addison-Wesley

  41. [학술지] Jones, Z. / 2004 / How do I love thee? Let me count the J's : Implicit egotism and interpersonal attraction / Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 87 : 665 ~ 683

  42. [학술지] Judd, C. M. / 2005 / Fundamental dimensions of social judgment: Understanding the relations between judgments of competence and warmth / Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 89 (6) : 899

  43. [학술지] Jung, J. / 1987 / Toward a social psychology of social support / Basic and Applied Social Psychology 8 (1,2) : 57 ~ 83

  44. [단행본] Kagan, S. / 1998 / Normative ethics / Westview Press

  45. [학술지] Kohlberg, L. / 1964 / Development of moral character and moral ideology / Review of child development research 1 : 383

  46. [학술지] Kordes-de Vaal, J. H. / 1996 / Intention and the omission bias : Omissions perceived as nondecisions / Acta Psychologica 93 (1) : 161 ~ 172

  47. [학술지] Langford, C. P. H. / 1997 / Social support : A conceptual analysis / Journal of Advanced Nursing 25 (1) : 95 ~ 100

  48. [학술지] Leach, C. W. / 2007 / Group virtue : The importance of morality(vs. competence and sociability)in the positive evaluation of in-groups / Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 93 (2) : 234

  49. [학술지] Leary, M. R. / 1990 / Impression management : A literature review and two-component model / Psychological Bulletin 107 (1) : 34

  50. [학술지] Lucas, R. E. / 2000 / Cross-cultural evidence for the fundamental features of extraversion / Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 79 (3) : 452

  51. [학술지] Moll, J. / 2001 / Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task: Preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects / Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria 59 (3B) : 657 ~ 664

  52. [학술지] Moll, J. / 2002 / Functional networks in emotional moral and nonmoral social judgments / Neuroimage 16 (3) : 696 ~ 703

  53. [학술지] Moll, J. / 2002 / The neural correlates of moral sensitivity : A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of basic and moral emotions / The Journal of Neuroscience 22 (7) : 2730 ~ 2736

  54. [학술지] Na, J. / 2013 / I Like You Because You Think in the"Right"Way : Culture and Ideal Thinking / Social Cognition 31 (3) : 390 ~ 404

  55. [학술지] Newcomb, T. M. / 1961 / The prediction of interpersonal attraction / American Psychologist 11 : 575 ~ 586

  56. [학술지] Peeters, G. / 1990 / Positive-negative asymmetry in evaluations : The distinction between affective and informational negativity effects / European Review of Social Psychology 1 (1) : 33 ~ 60

  57. [학술지] Preacher, K. J. / 2008 / Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models / Behavior Research Methods 40 (3) : 879 ~ 891

  58. [학술지] Rosenberg, S. / 1968 / A multidimensional approach to the structure of personality impressions / Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 9 (4) : 283

  59. [학술지] Sperber, D. / 2012 / Moral reputation : An evolutionary and cognitive perspective / Mind & Language 27 (5) : 495 ~ 518

  60. [학술지] Spranca, M. / 1991 / Omission and commission in judgment and choice / Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 27 (1) : 76 ~ 105

  61. [학술지] Takezawa, M. / 2006 / A stage for the rational tail of the emotional dog : Roles of moral reasoning in group decision making / Journal of Economic Psychology 27 (1) : 117 ~ 139

  62. [단행본] Taylor, S. E. / 1982 / Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases / Cambridge University Press

  63. [학술지] Thomson, J. J. / 1976 / Killing, Letting Die, and the Trolley Problem / The Monist 59 (2) : 204 ~ 217

  64. [단행본] Turiel, E. / 1983 / The development of social knowledge:Morality and convention / Cambridge University Press

  65. [학술지] Van Lange, P. A. / 1994 / Social value orientations and impressions of partner's honesty and intelligence : A test of the might versus morality effect / Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67 (1) : 126

  66. [학술지] Vonk, R. / 1999 / Effects of other‐profitability and self‐profitability on evaluative judgements of behaviours / European Journal of Social Psychology 29 (7) : 833 ~ 842

  67. [단행본] Watson, D. / 1997 / Handbook of personality psychology / Academic Press : 767 ~ 793

  68. [학술지] Willis, J. / 2006 / First impressions making up your mind after a 100-ms exposure to a face / Psychological Science 17 (7) : 592 ~ 598

  69. [학술지] Wojciszke, B. / 1998 / On the dominance of moral categories in impression formation / Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 24 (12) : 1251 ~ 1263

  70. [학술지] Wojciszke, B. / 2005 / Morality and competence in person-and self-perception / European Review of Social Psychology 16 (1) : 155 ~ 188

  71. [학술지] Wojciszke, B. / 2009 / Two dimensions of interpersonal attitudes : Liking depends on communion, respect depends on agency / European Journal of Social Psychology 39 (6) : 973 ~ 990