초록

Empirical research is warranted to determine effective ways to utilize paired associate music to facilitate recall and learning. The purpose of this study was to isolate and determine the effects of mode and rhythm on working memory as measured by sequential digit recall performance. Participants were music majors (n=30) and nonmusic majors (n=30) at a large comprehensive university. Participants listened to six different treatment stimuli of monosyllabic digits paired with: (a) a major melody and rhythm, (b) a natural minor melody and rhythm, (c) a mixolydian melody and rhythm, (d) a major melody without rhythm, (e) a natural minor melody without rhythm, and (f) a mixolydian melody without rhythm. Results indicated a significant interaction between mode and rhythm, demonstrating that rhythm facilitated recall most during the natural minor mode condition but not during the mixolydian mode condition. Analyses of estimated marginal means indicated that participants were able to recall information paired with major modes best, followed by minor and mixolydian modes, respectively. Additionally, participants were able to recall information paired with melodies that contained a rhythmic component better than information paired with melodies without a rhythmic component. Although not significant, music majors tended to slightly outperform nonmusic majors. Consistent with previous research, participants were able to recall information in primacy and recency serial positions most accurately. From the results of this study, memory and learning may be enhanced by pairing information with major melodies and rhythm. Limitations, implications for clinical practice, and suggestions for future research are provided.

키워드

memory, mnemonics, mode, paired associate, recall, rhythm

참고문헌(35)open

  1. [학술지] Bever, T. G. / 1974 / Cerebral dominance in musicians and nonmusicians / Science 185 : 537

  2. [학술지] Bilhartz, T. D. / 2000 / The effect of music training on child cognitive development / Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 20 : 615 ~ 635

  3. [학술지] Carruth, E. K. / 1997 / The effects of singing and the spaced retrieval technique in improving face-name recognition in nursing home residents with memory loss / Journal of Music Therapy 34 : 165 ~ 186

  4. [학술지] Chan, A. S. / 1998 / Music training improves verbal memory / Nature 396 : 128

  5. [학술지] Claussen, D. W. / 1997 / Music as a mnemonic device for children with learning disabilities / Canadian Journal of Music Therapy 5 : 55 ~ 66

  6. [학술지] Dowling, W. J. / 1973 / Rhythmic groups and subjective chunks in memory for melodies / Perception & Psychophysics 14 : 37 ~ 40

  7. [학술지] Ettlinger, G. / 1970 / Learning in dysphasia / Neuropsychologia 8 : 465 ~ 474

  8. [학술지] Fabbro, F. / 1990 / Opposite musical-manual interference in young vs expert musicians / Neuropsychologia 28 : 871 ~ 877

  9. [학술지] Gfeller, K. / 1983 / Musical mnemonics as an aid to retention with normal and learning disabled students / Journal of Music Therapy 20 : 179 ~ 189

  10. [학술지] Gromko, J. E. / 2009 / Effects of temporal sequencing and auditory discrimination on children’s memory patterns for tones, numbers, and nonsense words / Journal of Research in Music Education 57 : 140 ~ 151

  11. [학술지] Jakobson, L. S. / 2003 / Time tagging : A key to musicians’ superior memory / Music Perception 20 : 307 ~ 313

  12. [학술지] Jellison, J. A. / 1976 / Accuracy of temporal order recall for verbal and song digit-spans presented to right and left ears / Journal of Music Therapy 13 : 114 ~ 129

  13. [학술지] Jellison, J. A. / 1982 / Recall of digit and word sequences by musicians and nonmusicians as a function of spoken or sung input and task / Journal of Music Therapy 19 : 194 ~ 209

  14. [학술지] Kilgour, A. R. / 2000 / Music training and rate of presentation as mediators of text and song recall / Memory & Cognition 28 : 700 ~ 710

  15. [단행본] Madsen, C. K. / 1975 / Research in music behavior: Modifying music behavior in the classroom / Teachers College Press : 182 ~ 190

  16. [학술지] Miller, G. A. / 1956 / The magical number seven, plus or minus two : Some limits on our capacity for processing information / Psychological Review 63 : 184 ~ 185

  17. [학술지] Moore, K. S. / 2008 / The effectiveness of music as a mnemonic device on recognition memory for people with multiple sclerosis / Journal of Music Therapy 45 : 307 ~ 329

  18. [학술지] Murdock, B. B. / 1962 / The serial position effect of free recall / Journal of Experimental Psychology 64 : 482 ~ 488

  19. [학술지] Ohnishi, T. / 2001 / Functional anatomy of musical perception in musicans / Cerebral Cortex 11 : 754 ~ 760

  20. [학위논문] Prickett, C. A. / 1974 / A comparison of two rhythmic patterns as aids to digit recall

  21. [학술지] Prickett, C. A. / 1991 / The use of music to aid memory in Alzheimer’s patients / Journal of Music Therapy 28 : 101 ~ 110

  22. [학술지] Rainey, D. W. / 2002 / The effect of familiar melodies on initial learning and long-term memory for unconnected text / Music Perception 20 : 173 ~ 186

  23. [학술지] Salame, P. / 1989 / Effects of background music on phonological short-term memory / The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 41 : 107 ~ 122

  24. [학술지] Schellenberg, S. / 1985 / The effect of tonal-rhythmic context on short-term memory of rhythmic and melodic sequences / Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education 85 : 207 ~ 217

  25. [학술지] Schlaug, G. / 1995 / In vivo evidence of structural brain asymmetry in musicians / Science 267 : 699 ~ 701

  26. [단행본] Schunk, D. H. / 2004 / Learning theories : An educational perspective / Pearson

  27. [학술지] Schwartzberg, E. T. / 2012 / Effects of pitch, rhythm, and accompaniment on short-and long-term recall in children with autism spectrum disorders / Arts in Psychotherapy 39 : 314 ~ 320

  28. [학술지] Silverman, M. J. / 2007 / The effect of paired pitch, rhythm, and speech on working memory as measured by sequential digit recall / Journal of Music Therapy 44 : 415 ~ 427

  29. [학술지] Silverman, M. J. / 2010 / The effect of pitch, rhythm, and familiarity on working memory and anxiety as measured by digit recall performance / Journal of Music Therapy 47 : 70 ~ 83

  30. [학술지] Silverman, M. J. / 2012 / Effects of melodic complexity and rhythm on working memory as measured by digit recall performance / Music and Medicine 4 : 22 ~ 27

  31. [학술지] Steele, K. M. / 1997 / Listening to Mozart does not enhance backwards digit span performance / Perceptual & Motor Skills 84 : 1179 ~ 1184

  32. [학술지] Stoffer, T. H. / 1985 / Representation of phrase structure in the perception of music / Music Perception 3 : 191 ~ 220

  33. [학술지] Wallace, W. T. / 1994 / Memory for music : Effect of melody on recall of text. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory / and Cognition 20 : 1471 ~ 1485

  34. [학술지] Williams, D. B. / 1975 / Short-term retention of pitch sequence / Journal of Research in Music Education 23 : 53 ~ 66

  35. [학술지] Wolfe, D. E. / 1993 / Use of melodies as structural prompts for learning and retention of sequential verbal information by preschool students / Journal of Music Therapy 30 : 100 ~ 118