ABSTRACT

Attempting to find out valuable suggestions and implications for reducing school violence this study tested empirically the effects of the communal classroom instructional practices and the sense of community on the inhibitory school violence based on theoretical examination of the causal relationships among the three variables. Based on survey data collected from a sample of 4,525 elementary students in the 4th, 5th, and 6th grades this study employed the structural equation modelling to test the causal relationships among the two unobserved independent variables and the observed dependent variable. The results are as follows. First, the classroom instructional practices exerted significant effects on the sense of community. Second, the sense of community had a significant direct effect on the inhibitory school violence. Third, the effect of the communal classroom instructional practices on the inhibitory school violence was entirely mediated by the sense of community. Fourth, the 6th graders, compared to the 4th graders, had a slightly higher level in the communal classroom instructional practices, the sense of community, and the inhibitory school violence, and the explained variance of the inhibitory school violence owing to the two independent variables was smaller for the 6th graders. Lastly, the male students, compared to the females, were slightly lower in the level of the communal classroom instructional practices, the sense of community, and the inhibitory school violence, the effect of the sense of community on the inhibitory school violence was slightly lower for the males than the females. Based on the results the following suggestions were presented. First, as a way of preventing school violence the sense of community of students needs to be enhanced by reinforcing the communal instructional practices in elementary schools. Second, the reinforcement of the communal instructional practices and the sense of community is more needed as the school grade goes up and more needed for male students rather than females.

KEYWORD

classroom instructional practice, sense of community, school violence self-control behavior

REFERENCES(39)open

  1. [jounal] 김태진 / 2007 / 학교폭력 예방을 위한 사회안전망의 구상 / 한국경호경비학회지 13 (13) : 169 ~ 192

  2. [thesis] 오지원 / 2013 / 학급 공동체의식이 집단 따돌림 관여 행동에 미치는 영향 : 주변인 유형(방관자, 가해동조자, 피해자 방어자)을 중심으로

  3. [jounal] 이미형 / 2009 / 학교폭력에 관한 교사의 인식 / 한국보건간호학회지 23 (2) : 174 ~ 185

  4. [thesis] 이숙정 / 2005 / 교사신뢰척도 개발 및 교사신뢰와 학교효과 변인의 관계모형 검증

  5. [book] 청소년폭력예방재단 / 1997 / 학교폭력상담사례집 / 청소년폭력예방재단

  6. [report] 학교폭력예방재단 / 2012 / 2010년 학교폭력 실태조사 분석

  7. [book] 한대동 / 2009 / 배움과 돌봄의 학교공동체 / 학지사

  8. [jounal] 한상철 / 2003 / 청소년 폭력의 원인과 대처방안 / 학생생활연구 8 (1) : 23 ~ 57

  9. [book] 佐藤 學 / 2001 / 교육개혁을 Design한다 / 공감

  10. [book] 佐藤 學 / 2000 / 수업이 바뀌면 학교가 바뀐다 / 에듀케어

  11. [jounal] Allen, J. / 1995 / Friends, fairness, fun, and the freedom to choose: Hearing student voices / Journal of Curriculum and Supervision 10 (4) : 286 ~ 301

  12. [jounal] Battistich, V. / 1995 / Schools as communities, poverty levels of student populations, and students' attitudes, motives, and performance: A multilevel analysis / American Educational Research Journal 32 (3) : 627 ~ 658

  13. [book] Battistich, V. / 1991 / The child development project: A comprehensive program for the development of prosocial character, In Handbook of moral behavior and development: Application(vol. 3) : 1 ~ 34

  14. [jounal] Baumeister, R. F. / 1995 / The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attatchments as a fundamental motivation / Psychological Bulletin 117 (3) : 497 ~ 529

  15. [book] Cohen, E. G. / 2004 / Teaching cooperative learning: The challenge for teacher education / State University of New York

  16. [book] Dewey, J. / 1958 / Experience and education / Macmillan

  17. [book] Elliot, D. S. / 1974 / Delinquency and dropout / Lexington Books

  18. [jounal] Goodenow, C. / 1993 / Classroom belonging among early adolescent students: Relationships to motivation and achievement / Journal of Early Adolescence 13 (1) : 21 ~ 43

  19. [jounal] Greene, M. B. / 2008 / Reducing school violence: school-based curricular programs and school climate / Prevention Researcher 15 (1) : 12 ~ 16

  20. [jounal] Johnson, D. W. / 1983 / Interdependence and interpersonal attraction among heterogeneous and homogeneous individuals: A theoretical formulation and a meta-analysis of the research / Review of Educational Research 53 (1) : 5 ~ 54

  21. [jounal] Jones, M. G. / 1994 / Silent sixth-grade students: Characteristics, achievement, and teacher expectations / Elementary School Journal 95 (2) : 169 ~ 182

  22. [jounal] Kwon, O. / 2005 / A study on the cause and countermeasures on the school violence / Law Review 18 : 257 ~ 279

  23. [book] Newmann, F. M. / 1996 / Authentic achievement: Restructuring schools for intellectual quality / Jossey-Bass Publishers

  24. [book] Oakes, J. / 1995 / Creating new educational communities: Ninety-fourth yearbook of the national society for the study of education / The University of Chicago Press

  25. [book] Olweus, D. / 1993 / Bullying at school: what we know and shat we can do / Blackwell

  26. [book] Osterman, K. / 2002 / Schools as communities for students, In School as community: From promise to practice / State University of New York Press

  27. [thesis] Phelps, J. D. / 1990 / A study of the interrelationships between cooperative team learning, learning preference, friendship patterns, gender, and achievement of middle school students

  28. [jounal] Pianta, R. C. / 1992 / Teacher-Child relationship and the process of adjustment to school / New Directions for Child Development 57 : 61 ~ 80

  29. [jounal] Resnick, M. / 1997 / Protecting adolescents from harm / Journal of the American Medical Association 278 (10) : 823 ~ 832

  30. [book] Rogoff, B. / 2001 / Learning together: children and adults in a school community / Oxford University Press

  31. [jounal] Ryan, R. M. / 1995 / Psychological needs and the facilitation of integrative processes / Journal of Personality 63 (3) : 397 ~ 427

  32. [jounal] Ryan, R. M. / 1989 / Emotional autonomy versus detatchment: Revisiting the vicissitudes of adolescence and young adulthood / Child Development 60 : 340 ~ 356

  33. [jounal] Shrout, P. E. / 2002 / Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations / Psychological Methods 7 : 422 ~ 445

  34. [book] Smith, G. A. / 1993 / Public schools that work: Creating community / Routledge

  35. [jounal] Solomon, D. / 1997 / Teacher practices associated with students' sense of the classroom as a community / Social Psychology of Education 1 : 235 ~ 267

  36. [jounal] Solomon, D. / 1996 / Creating classrooms that students experience as communities / American Journal of Community Psychology 24 (6) : 719 ~ 748

  37. [book] Vygotsky, L. S. / 1981 / The genesis of higher mental functions, In The concept of activity in Soviet psychology / M.E. Sharpe

  38. [jounal] Watson, M. / 1997 / Enhancing students' social and ethical development in school: An intervention program and its effects / International Journal of Educational Research 27 : 571 ~ 586

  39. [jounal] Wentzel, K. R. / 1997 / Student motivation in middle schools: The role of perceived pedagogical caring / Journal of Educational Psychology 89 (3) : 411 ~ 419