ABSTRACT

The purposes of this study were (1) to identify developmental trajectories of social withdrawal in male adolescents and (2) to investigate the impact of temperament and parental behaviors on latent classes. A total of 602 students were recruited from a boys’ high school in the Seoul metropolitan area and were assessed four times approximately every eight months over a two-year period. The Parental Bonding Instrument and Junior Temperament and Character Inventory 12-18 were administered at the first time point and the Korean version of the Youth Self Report (K-YSR) withdrawal subscale was administered across all four time points. Results of Latent Growth Curve Modeling (LGCM) revealed that the linear model showed a better fit than quadratic model and the slope of the means was not significant. Latent Growth Mixture Modeling (LGMM) identified three latent trajectories; “High Stable”, “Low Decreasing”, and “Low Increasing.” Logistic regression analysis was performed for examination of the impact of temperament and parental behaviors on developmental trajectories. These analyses revealed that “harm avoidance temperaments” and level of “care” in parents were predictived of high risk trajectories. This study demonstrated the need for utilization of longitudinal approaches to understanding individual differences of social withdrawal behaviors in adolescents. Implications and limitations were discussed along with suggestions for future research.

KEYWORD

male adolescents, social withdrawal, K-YSR, K-PBI, K-JTCI, temperament, parenting behaviors, latent growth curve modeling, latent growth mixture modeling, developmental trajectories, logistic regression

REFERENCES(58)open

  1. [jounal] 강지현 / 2010 / 유아기 외현화 문제행동의 하위 발달경로에 미치는 기질의 효과: 잠재성장혼합모형(Latent Growth Mixture Modeling) 분석을 적용한 단기종단연구 / 한국심리학회지 임상 29 (3) : 875 ~ 894

  2. [jounal] 강지현 / 2011 / 유아기 내재화 및 외현화 문제행동에 대한 연령, 기질과 양육행동의 영향에 있어서의 성차 / 한국심리학회지:여성 16 (1) : 1 ~ 21

  3. [jounal] 김보경 / 2006 / 청소년 우울과 지각된 부모 양육 행동, 기질 및 성격의 관계 / 한국심리학회지 임상 25 (1) : 221 ~ 236

  4. [thesis] 김봉석 / 2005 / 주요우울증환자에서 항우울제 약물치료전후위험회피성의 변화

  5. [jounal] 문경주 / 2002 / 지각된 부모의 양육행동과 초기 청소년의 우울 및 불안의 관계 / 한국심리학회지 임상 21 (1) : 29 ~ 43

  6. [book] 민병배 / 2007 / 기질 및 성격검사 매뉴얼 / (주)마음사랑

  7. [jounal] 송지영 / 1992 / 한국판 부모-자녀 결합형태검사(PBI) : 신뢰도 및 타당도 검증 / 신경정신의학 31 (5) : 979 ~ 990

  8. [jounal] 양재원 / 2006 / 사회불안집단의 부정적 얼굴표정에 대한 선택적 주의 편파 : 세 연령 집단 비교 / 한국심리학회지 임상 25 (1) : 237 ~ 255

  9. [report] 오경자 / 2004 / 청소년기 정서장애 조기발견 및 정신건강 서비스 연결체계 모형개발

  10. [book] 오경자 / 2001 / K-YSR 청소년 자기행동 평가척도 / 중앙적성출판사

  11. [jounal] 이경숙 / 2004 / 한국 유아 행동문제의 경향과 특성: 서울지역을 중심으로 / 한국심리학회지: 발달 17 (4) : 53 ~ 74

  12. [jounal] 이은주 / 2010 / 내재화 행동문제와 외현화 행동문제의 종단적 공동발달 : 잠재성장모델의 적용 / 한국청소년연구 21 (4) : 171 ~ 200

  13. [jounal] 이주영 / 2010 / 청소년기 우울-비행 공존 집단에 영향을 미치는 기질 및 성별의 효과: 잠재 프로파일 분석(latent profile analysis)의 적용 / 한국심리학회지 임상 29 (1) : 53 ~ 72

  14. [jounal] 이주영 / 2011 / 자기회귀 교차지연 모형을 적용한 청소년기 우울과 비행의 시간적 발달 관계 검증: 성별간 다집단 분석 / 한국심리학회지 임상 30 (2) : 497 ~ 518

  15. [jounal] 임은미 / 2009 / 청소년의 스트레스와 우울의 변화 및 우울에 대한 스트레스의 장기적 영향 / 청소년학연구 16 (3) : 99 ~ 121

  16. [thesis] 임진현 / 2005 / 우울-품행장애성향 청소년의 기질과 자기개념 및 정서 특성

  17. [jounal] 정익중 / 2009 / 청소년비행 발달궤적의 다양한 유형 / 한국청소년연구 20 (3) : 253 ~ 280

  18. [jounal] 좌현숙 / 2010 / 청소년 내재화 문제의 발달궤적에 영향을 미치는 위험요인과 보호요인 : 발달-맥락주의 관점을 적용하여 / 청소년학연구 17 (10) : 105 ~ 133

  19. [thesis] 한창환 / 2001 / 생물유전적 기질과 가정환경이 청소년기 우울, 품행장애 성향 및 반사회적 행동에 미치는 영향 : 성격, 자아상 및 스트레스를 매개 변인으로

  20. [book] Achenbach, T. M. / 1991 / Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 and 1991 profile / University of Vermont

  21. [jounal] 54(5) / 1999 / Adolescent storm and stress, reconsidered / American Psychologist 54 (5) : 317 ~ 326

  22. [jounal] Asendorpf, J. B. / 1991 / Development of inhibited children's coping with unfamiliarity / Child Development 62 : 1460 ~ 1474

  23. [jounal] Bentler, P. M. / 1990 / Comparative fit indexes in structural models / Psychological Bulletin 107 (2) : 238 ~ 246

  24. [thesis] Bolme-Lake, T. L. / 2007 / Predicting internalizing problems in at-risk children and adolescents

  25. [jounal] Booth-LaForce, C. / 2008 / Trajectories of social withdrawal from grades 1 to 6 : Prediction from early parenting, attachment, and temperament / Developmental Psychology 44 (5) : 1298 ~ 1313

  26. [book] Browne, M. W. / 1993 / Alternative ways of assessing model fit, In Testing structural equation models / Sage : 136 ~ 162

  27. [book] Burgess, K. / 2001 / Socially withdrawn children: Parenting and parent-child relationships, In The self, shyness and social anxiety: A handbook of concepts, research, and interventions / Wiley

  28. [jounal] Cicchetti, D. / 2002 / A developmental psychopathology perspective on adolescence / Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 70 (1) : 6 ~ 20

  29. [jounal] Cloninger, C. R. / 1984 / A systemic method of clinical description and classfication of personality variants / Archives of General Psychiatry 44 : 573 ~ 588

  30. [book] Cloninger, C. R. / 2004 / Feeling Good: The Science of Well-being / Oxford

  31. [jounal] Eggum, N. D. / 2009 / Predictors of withdrawal : Possible precursors of avoidant personality disorder / Development and Psychopathology 21 : 815 ~ 838

  32. [jounal] Goodwin, R. D. / 2004 / Early anxious/withdrawn behaviours predict later internalising disorders / Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 45 (4) : 874 ~ 883

  33. [jounal] Greenberger, E. / 1975 / The measurement and structure of psychosocial maturity / Journal of Youth and Adolescence 4 (2) : 127 ~ 143

  34. [jounal] Hankin, B. L. / 1998 / Development of depression from preadolescence to young adulthood : Emerging gender differences in a 10-year longitudinal study / Journal of Abnormal Psychology 107 (1) : 128 ~ 140

  35. [jounal] Hoekstra, R. A. / 2008 / Genetic and environmental influences on the stability of withdrawn behavior in children : A longitudinal, multi-informant twin study / Behavior Genetics 38 (5) : 447 ~ 461

  36. [jounal] Kim, S. J. / 2006 / The relationship between the biogenetic temperament and character and psychopathology in adolescents / Psychopathology 39 : 80 ~ 86

  37. [jounal] Lewinsohn, P. M. / 1998 / Major depressive disorder in older adolescents : Prevalence, risk factors, and clinical implications / Clinical Psychology Review 18 (7) : 765 ~ 794

  38. [jounal] Loeber, R. / 1994 / Problems and solutions in longitudinal and experimental treatment studies of child psychopathology and delinquency / Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 62 (5) : 887 ~ 900

  39. [book] Mash, E. J. / 2003 / Childhood psychopathology / Guilford

  40. [jounal] Masten, A. S. / 1998 / The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments : Lessons from research on successful children / American Psychologist 53 (2) : 205 ~ 220

  41. [jounal] McDonald, R. P. / 1990 / Choosing a multivariate model : Noncentrality and goodness of fit / Psychological Bulletin 107 (2) : 247 ~ 255

  42. [jounal] Muthén, L. K. / 2000 / Integrating person-centered and variable-centered analyses : growth mixture modeling with latent trajectory classes / Alcoholism : Clinical and Experimental Research 24 (6) : 882 ~ 891

  43. [book] Muthén, B. / 2008 / Latent variable hybrids: Overview of old and new models, In Advances in latent variable mixture models / IAP

  44. [jounal] Narita, T. / 2000 / Parental child-rearing behavior as measured by the PBI in Japanese population : factor structure and relationship to a lifetime history of depression / Journal of Affective Disorders 57 : 229 ~ 234

  45. [jounal] Oh, W. / 2008 / Trajectories of social withdrawal from middle childhood to early adolescence / Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 36 (4) : 553 ~ 566

  46. [jounal] Parker, G. / 1979 / A parental bonding instrument / British Journal of Medicine Psychology 52 : 1 ~ 10

  47. [jounal] Petersen, A. C. / 1993 / Depression in adolescence / American Psychologist 48 (2) : 155 ~ 168

  48. [jounal] Pine, D. S. / 2001 / Adolescent fears as predictors of depression / Biological Psychiatry 50 (9) : 721 ~ 724

  49. [jounal] Prior, M. / 2000 / Does shy-inhibited temperament in childhood lead to anxiety problems in adolescence? / Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 39 (4) : 461 ~ 468

  50. [book] Rubin, K. H. / 2001 / Social withdrawal and anxiety, In The developmental psychopathology of anxiety / Oxford University Press : 407 ~ 434

  51. [book] Rubin, K. H. / 2003 / Social withdrawal in childhood, In Child psychopathology / Guilford Press : 372 ~ 406

  52. [jounal] Rubin, K. H. / 1993 / Socioemotional characteristics of withdrawn and aggressive children / Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 39 (4) : 518 ~ 534

  53. [jounal] Rubin, K. H. / 2004 / Paying attention to and not neglecting social withdrawal and social isolation / Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 50 : 506 ~ 534

  54. [jounal] Schafer, J. L. / 2002 / Missing data : Our view of the state of the art / Psychological Methods 7 (2) : 147 ~ 177

  55. [book] Schmeck, K. / 1995 / Persoenlichkeitsfragebogen fuer Jugendliche- JTCI / Universitaet Frankfut

  56. [jounal] Sterba, S. K. / 2007 / Trajectories of internalizing problems across childhood : Heterogeneity, external validity, and gender differences / Development and Psychopathology 19 : 345 ~ 366

  57. [jounal] Stoolmiller, M. / 2005 / The course of depressive symptoms in men from early adolescence to young adulthood : Identifying latent trajectories and early predictors / Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114 (3) : 331 ~ 345

  58. [jounal] Weissman, M. M. / 1999 / Depressed Adolescents Grown Up / Journal of the American Medical Association 281 (18) : 1707 ~ 1713