ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-termeffects of two relaxation techniques on choice reaction time (CRT), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate and oxygen consumption (VO_2) following intermittent high intensity exercise. Twenty-four physically active young male athletes were randomly divided into three groups, like, autogenic relaxation (AGR) group, progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) group and a control group. The experimental session consisted of two sessions with a long-termfour-week relaxation training in between. Each experimental session involved four bouts of intermittent exercise, consisting of. cycling at 60% VO_2max. for 10 minutes followed by 90% VO_2max. for 2 minutes. In between each bout of cycling, a 3-minute rest was given when choice reaction time (CRT) was conducted. Furthermore, RPE, heart rate, and VO_2 were measured at the last minute of each cycling bout Using 3(groups) x 2 (sessions) x 4 (trials)repeated measure ANOVA, the results revealed no significant interaction effects in any of the parameters. However, significant main effects for the session were found in heart rate, VO_2 and CRT, whereas significant main effects for trials were found for heart rate, RPE, and CRT. Hence, it is concluded that there was no significant effect of both the relaxation training on CRT and psychophysiological parameters,but moderately high intensity intermittent activity improved the reaction time performance.

KEYWORD

Progressive relaxation therapy, Autogenic relaxation, Reaction time

REFERENCES(35)open

  1. [jounal] Adam J. J. / 1997 / Human information processing during physical exercise: manipulating mental processing demands / International Journal of Sports Psychology 28 : 217 ~ 226

  2. [book] American College of Sports Medicine / 2000 / ACSM’s Guideline for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 6th ed / Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins : 116 ~ 117

  3. [jounal] Arcelin, R. / 1997 / Effects of physical exercise duration on decision making performance / Journal of Human Movement Studies 32 : 123 ~ 140

  4. [book] Benson, H / 1976 / The relaxation response / New York: William Morrow

  5. [jounal] Brisswalter, J. / 1995 / Optimal and non-optimal demand in a dual-task of pedalling and simple reaction time: effects on energy expenditure and cognitive performance / Journal of Human Movement Studies 29 : 15 ~ 34

  6. [jounal] Borkovec, T. D. / 1979 / Critical procedural variables related to the physiological effects of progressive relaxation: A review / Behaviour Research and Therapy 17 : 119 ~ 126

  7. [jounal] Bull, S. J / 1991 / Personal and situational influences on adherence to mental skills training / The Sport Psychologist 13 : 121 ~ 132

  8. [jounal] Chmura, J. / 1994 / Choice reaction time during graded exercise in relation to blood lactate and plasma catecholamine thresholds / International Journal of Sports Medicine 15 (4) : 172 ~ 176

  9. [jounal] Chmura, J. / 1998 / Psychomotor performance during prolonged exercise above and below the blood lactate threshold.European Journal of Applied Physiology & Occupational / European Journal of Applied Physiology & Occupational Physiology 77 : 77 ~ 80

  10. [jounal] Chiang, L.C. / 2009 / Effects of relaxation-breathing training on anxiety and asthma signs/symptoms of children with moderate-to-severe asthma: A randomized controlled trial / International Journal of Nursing Studies 46 : 1061 ~ 1070

  11. [jounal] Eason, R. L. / 1986 / Relaxation training effects on reaction/response time, frontalis EMG, and behavioral measures of relaxation with hyperactive males / Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 3 : 329 ~ 341

  12. [jounal] Easterbrook, J. A / 1959 / The effect of emotion on cue utilization and the organization of behaviour / Psychological Review 66 : 183 ~ 201

  13. [jounal] Faul, F. / 2007 / G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences / Behavior Research Methods 39 : 175 ~ 191

  14. [book] Gould, D. / 1992 / The arousal-athletic performance relationship: current status and future directions, In Advances in Sports Psychology / Champaign, il; Human Kinetics : 119 ~ 141

  15. [jounal] Hancock, S. / 1986 / Effects of fatigue on ability to process visual information by experienced orienteers / Perceptual Motor Skill 62 (2) : 491 ~ 498

  16. [jounal] Hogervorst, E. / 1996 / Cognitiveperformance after strenousphysicalexercise / Perceptual Motor Skills 83 : 479 ~ 488

  17. [jounal] Issacs, L. D. / 1991 / Effectsofexerciseitensity on an accompanyingtimingtask / Journal of Human Movement Studies 20 : 123 ~ 131

  18. [jounal] Klein-Hebling, J. / 2002 / Benefits and interindividual differences in children’s responses to extended and intensified relaxation training / Anxiety, Stress and Coping 15 : 275 ~ 288

  19. [jounal] Lemmink, K. A. P. M. / 2005 / Effects of intermittent exercise on multiple choice reaction times of soccer players / Perceptual and Motor Skills 100 : 85 ~ 95

  20. [jounal] Lehrer, P. M. / 1996 / Varieties of relaxation methods and their unique effects / International Journal of Stress Management 3 : 1 ~ 14

  21. [book] Lehrer, P. M. / 1993 / Principles and practice of stress management (2nd Ed) / New York: Guilford

  22. [jounal] Lohaus, A. / 2001 / Psychophyiological effects of relaxation training in children / British Journal of Health Psychology 6 : 197 ~ 206

  23. [jounal] Lohaus, A. / 2003 / Relaxation in children: Effects of extended and intensified training / Psychology and Health 18 : 237 ~ 249

  24. [jounal] Mandengue, S. H. / 1995 / Are athletes able to self-select their optimal warm up / Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 8 (1) : 26 ~ 34

  25. [jounal] Martin, G. L. / 2005 / Experimental studies of psychological interventions with athletes in competitions: why so few / Behavior Modification 29 (4) : 616 ~ 641

  26. [jounal] McMorris, T. / 1996 / The effects of exercise on decision-making performance of experienced and unexperienced soccer players / Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sports 67 : 109 ~ 114

  27. [jounal] McMorris, T. / 2000 / The effect of incremental exercise on cognitive performance / International Journal of Sports Psychology 31 : 66 ~ 81

  28. [book] Mukhtar, F / 2009 / Audio CD Progressive Muscle Relaxation VersiBahasaMelayu / Kelantan: PusatPengajian Sains Kesihatan, Universiti Sains Malaysia

  29. [jounal] Ortiz, J / 2006 / Efficacy of relaxation techniques in increasing sport performance in women golfers / The Sport Journal 9 (1) : 1 ~ 8

  30. [book] Schultz, J. H. / 1959 / Autogenic Training: A psycholophysiological approach in psychotherapy / New York: Grune& Stratton

  31. [jounal] Shapiro, S. / 1980 / Psychophysiological Effects of Autogenic Training and Progressive Relaxation / Biofeedback and Self-Regulation 5 : 249 ~ 255

  32. [report] Staples, D. S. / 2008 / A self-efficacy theory explanation for the management of remote workers in virtual organizations

  33. [jounal] Stewart, M. / 2007 / Warm-up or stretch as preparation for sprint performance / Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 10 (6) : 403 ~ 410

  34. [jounal] Williams, L. R. T / 1985 / Effect of exercise on choice reaction latency and movement speed / Perceptual Motor Skill 60 : 67 ~ 71

  35. [jounal] Zaichkowsky, L. B. / 1984 / The effects of a school-based relaxation training program on fourth grade children / Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 13 (1) : 81 ~ 85