초록

본 논문은 대만의 정당체제가 민주화 이후 어떠 한 변화과정을 통해 현상유지(미래의 통일)와 독 립문제로 대결하는 분극적 경쟁(polarized competition)을 하게 되었는가를 살펴보고 있다. 방 법론으로는 정치엘리트 중심의 정당재편성 이론 (party realignment theory)을 적용하여 정치엘리트가 사회적 균열의 형성과 정당체제의 변화 과정에서 담당하는 역할을 분석하였다. 구체적으로는 민진당 을 중심으로 한 정치엘리트가 독립 문제를 적극적 으로 활용하고, 이를 정당경쟁의 현저한 이슈 (salient issue)로 등장시키면서 정당체제의 분극적 경쟁을 형성하였다는 점을 밝히고자 하였다. 대만 의 정치엘리트는 잠재되어 있던 독립 이슈를 출신 성의 문제와 대만 민족주의와 연결시키면서 활성 화시켰고, 성공적인 유권자 동원을 통해 새로운 균 열을 형성할 수 있었다. 새롭게 형성된 균열은 2000 년 총통선거에서 민진당의 승리를 결정지은 중대 선거(critical election)를 가져왔으며 이후 대만 정당 체제는 독립 문제를 중심으로 분극적 경쟁의 특징 을 보이고 있다.

키워드

대만, 독립, 정당재편성, 국가적 정체성, 대만민족주의, 중대선거, 2000년 총통선거.

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