ABSTRACT

Students with learning problems often suffer from engaging in learning activities and tasks, which often result in poor academic performance and/or low academic achievement. Teachers of these students in inclusive classrooms, particularly, have difficulty in engaging them into class instruction. It is needed for teachers to know which instruction can be effective in facilitating the student engagement of their students including those with learning problems. Thus, this paper is designed to examine effective approaches for enhancing the student engagement of students with learning problems in inclusive elementary classrooms, especially in reading. Relevant research findings show that following instructional strategies are effective in enhancing the student engagement: (1) using relevant and interesting tasks and/or activities, (2) using novel tasks and activities, (3) applying direct instruction and strategy instruction, (4) supporting student autonomy, (5) identifying instructional goals and objectives, (6) using reinforcement with clear feedback, and (7) creating an instructional environment that is conducive to reading. Teachers in inclusive classrooms should understand these students' difficulties and their learning characteristics, implement effective instruction using strategies listed above cohesively, build a learning community, and collaborate with the parents and other educators in order to facilitate the student engagement of all students.

KEYWORD

inclusive education, student engagement, reading instruction, special education instructional strategies, students with learning problems, elementary education

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