ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating effects of social support and coping on the depression of widowed elderly. Participants were composed of 104 older adults, whose age range was from 60 to 80(M=71.31, SD= 5.30). For this purpose, the survey was carried out using Bereavement Stress Scale(emotional loneliness, relational strains, financial strains, role-related strains), Social Support scale, Stress-Coping Scale(dependence on religion, solving the problem, emotional effusion, passive evasion), Geriatric Depression Scale and Livelihood Stress Scale. The data were statistically analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis, stepwise multiple regression and hierarchical regression. There were statistically significant correlations between bereavement stress and depression(r = .40, p < .01.), between social support and depression(r = -.74, p < .01.). Regression analysis revealed that the financial strains were moderated by the social support. But problem-focused coping behavior aggravated depression and was not of help to the widowed. Furthermore, it was found that social support and health condition explained 65.2% of total variance of the bereaved elders' depression. These results demonstrated that social support played a crucial role in the psychological maladaptation of the bereaved elderly.

KEYWORD

bereavement stress, social support, coping behavior, depression

REFERENCES(82)open

  1. [jounal] / 1998 / 여성의 배우자 사별 스트레스 적응 과정에서 개인 내적요인들의 중재적 역할 36 (4) : 95 ~ 107

  2. [jounal] / 2000 / 일부지역 노인들의 신체적 건강과 우울과의 관련성 26 (4) : 451 ~ 459

  3. [jounal] / 1999 / 노인 우울증^ 3 (3) : 1 ~ 10

  4. [jounal] / 2002 / 스트레스이론의 비교 및 노인의 역할변화 연구에의 적용 22 (2) : 41 ~ 61

  5. [jounal] / 2004 / 미국 여성노인의 우울증에 영향을 미치는 요인-배우자유무에 따른 비교를 중심으로- 24 (4) : 147 ~ 164

  6. [jounal] / 2000 / 치매노인 부양자들의 대처방식과 대처효과에 대한 지각 20 (2) : 183 ~ 193

  7. [jounal] / 2004 / 노인의 스트레스로 인한 우울에 대한 사회적 지지와 대처의 조절효과

  8. [jounal] / 1993 / 역기능적 태도 및 대처방식의 우울에 대한 효과 : 25 ~ 438

  9. [jounal] / 2005 / 노인이 지각한 스트레스 대처방법과 심리적 복지감의 관계에 따른 스트레스 대처 28 (2) : 379 ~ 402

  10. [jounal] / 2005 / 노령화 지수 추이

  11. [jounal] / 1994 / 친족지원과 사별한 편모의 심리적 복지감

  12. [jounal] / 1991 / 노년기의 고독감 Ⅳ 자녀와의 갈등에 대한 대처행동 : 17 ~ 32

  13. [jounal] / 1994 / 남녀 노인의 스트레스

  14. [jounal] / 1997 / 성인 노인 심리학

  15. [jounal] / 2002 / 스트레스 및 대처 그리고 노년기 우울간의 관계

  16. [jounal] / 2002 / 노인의 스트레스와 대처방식에 관한 연구

  17. [jounal] / 1999 / 단독가구 노인의 스트레스와 우울감 사회적 지지의 완충 효과를 중심으로

  18. [jounal] / 2004 / 노인의 스트레스 사회적 지지와 우울간의 관계 34 (3) : 477 ~ 484

  19. [jounal] / 2000 / 배우자 사별 노인의 자기 효능감 사회적 지지 및 심리적 적응에 관한 연구 38 (1) : 155 ~ 170

  20. [jounal] / 1997 / 배우자와의 사별로 인한 스트레스 및 사회적 지지가 우울감에 미치는 영향

  21. [jounal] / 1990 / 노인의 스트레스에 대한 영향변인과 대처 방법에 관한 연구

  22. [jounal] / 1996 / 도시노인의 정신건강에 영향을 미치는 요인분석 16 (2) : 39 ~ 52

  23. [jounal] / 2002 / 노인의 지각된 스트레스와 대처방법과 생 활만족도의 관계

  24. [jounal] / 1985 / Effects of different sources of social support and social conflict on emotional well-being : 111 ~ 129

  25. [jounal] / 1991 / Implications of age differences in perceived control Journal of Gerontology : 174 ~ 180

  26. [jounal] / 1995 / The long-term effects of later life spousal and parenta bereavement on personal functioning. 35 (5) : 637 ~ 647

  27. [jounal] / 2000 / Social forces and aging

  28. [jounal] / 1983 / Social support and adaptation to widowhood 11 : 827 ~ 839

  29. [jounal] / 1991 / The influence of caregiving and bereavement support on adjusting to an older relative's death & (elker) : 32 ~ 42

  30. [jounal] / 1991 / Intrapersonal resources and the effectives of self-help groups for bereaved older adults : 619 ~ 629

  31. [jounal] / 1976 / Social support as a moderator of life stress 40 : 539 ~ 550

  32. [jounal] / 1983 / Positive events and social support as buffers of life change stress 13 : 99 ~ 125

  33. [jounal] / 1985 / Issues in the study and application of social support

  34. [jounal] / 2001 / Social capital and participation in everyday life

  35. [jounal] / 1989 / Beyond widowhood from bereavement to emerge and hope

  36. [jounal] / 1987 / The role of social support in the first two years of bereavement in an elderly sample : 599 ~ 604

  37. [jounal] / 1999 / Assessment of depression and bereavement in older adults. In paper A. Lichtenberg(Ed.), : 11 ~ 58

  38. [jounal] / 1987 / Age differences in stress and coping process : 171 ~ 184

  39. [jounal] / 2001 / Late life depression 251 (2) : 11 ~ 61

  40. [jounal] / 2003 / Social support and quality of life 12 (1) : 25 ~ 31

  41. [jounal] / 1988 / The role of anticipatory bereavement in older women's adjustment to widowhood : 792 ~ 796

  42. [jounal] / 1981 / Work stress and social support

  43. [jounal] / 1991 / Stressful event and life satisfaction among elderly men and women Journal of Gerontology : 84 ~ 92

  44. [jounal] / 1995 / Social class differences in social support among older adults 35 (4) : 498 ~ 508

  45. [jounal] / 1989 / Stress and religious involvement among older blacks Journal of Gerontology : 4 ~ 13

  46. [jounal] / 1986 / Social support for the bereaved Recipients' and providers' perspectives on what is helpful Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychological : 438 ~ 446

  47. [jounal] / 1993 / The support systems of American Urban widows Handbook of bereavement : 381 ~ 396

  48. [jounal] / 1994 / Adjustment to loss of spouse as a multivariate construct : 229 ~ 245

  49. [jounal] / 1986 / Gender difference through two years of bereavement among the elderly : 314 ~ 320

  50. [jounal] / 1990 / Situational determinants of coping and coping effectiveness Journal of Health And Social Behavior : 103 ~ 122

  51. [jounal] / 1996 / Life Events

  52. [jounal] / 1994 / A prospective study of widowhood and changes in symptoms of depression in a community sample of the elderly : 613 ~ 624

  53. [jounal] / 2003 / Living longer depression free

  54. [jounal] / 1992 / Age and depression 33 : 187 ~ 205

  55. [jounal] / 1984 / Deficiencies in social support among depressed patients antecedents or consequence of stress Journal of Health and Social Behavior : 438 ~ 452

  56. [jounal] / 1989 / Adjusting to widowhood : 101 ~ 107

  57. [jounal] / 1998 / Stress, health, and depressive symptoms in older adults at three time points over 18 months. 19 : 207 ~ 224

  58. [jounal] / 1987 / Older adult family stress and adaptation before and after bereavement Journal of Gerontology : 606 ~ 612

  59. [jounal] / 1987 / Transitory Impact of life-event stress on psychological symptoms in older adults 28 : 197 ~ 211

  60. [jounal] / 1990 / life events and stress as modifiers of adjustment to bereavement by older adults : 429 ~ 436

  61. [jounal] / 1989 / Financial experience and well-being among mature widowed women : 245 ~ 251

  62. [jounal] / 1993 / Bereavement as a psychosocial transition:Processes of adaptation to change 44 : 53 ~ 65

  63. [jounal] / 2003 / Examining the efffects of coping and social support on work and life stress among police officers 31 : 215 ~ 226

  64. [jounal] / 1978 / The structure of coping Journal of Health and Social Behavior

  65. [jounal] / 1985 / Life satisfaction determinants of older male and females 7 : 47 ~ 63

  66. [jounal] / 1995 / Status and role change through the life cycle. in R. H. Binstock & E. Shanas (Eds.) : 62 ~ 93

  67. [jounal] / 1995 / Reconceptualizing marital status as a continuum of social attachment 57 (1) : 129 ~ 140

  68. [jounal] / 1986 / Recent evidence and development of a shorter version A Guide to Assessment and Intervention

  69. [jounal] / 1990 / and psychological distress among the elderly Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology : 519 ~ 524

  70. [jounal] / 1994 / Does intergenerational social support influence the psychological well-being of older parents? The contingencies of declining health and widowhood : 943 ~ 957

  71. [jounal] / 1989 / Introduction to social psychology

  72. [jounal] / 1988 / Journal of Social Issues : 1 ~ 18

  73. [jounal] / 1999 / Does Differential Social Support Cause Sex Differences in Bereavement Outcome?. 9 : 1 ~ 12

  74. [jounal] / 1993 / The role of social support in bereavement Handbook of Bereavement stylia (s)

  75. [jounal] / 1985 / Journal of Gerontology

  76. [jounal] / 1995 / Stress, coping, and social support processes: Where are we? what next 36 (5) : 53 ~ 79

  77. [jounal] / 1992 / Widowhood and spousal bereavement over a 30-month interval : 434 ~ 441

  78. [jounal] / 1987 / Family status and health behaviors 28 : 306 ~ 319

  79. [jounal] / 1985 / Models of the stress-buffering functions of coping resources 26 : 352 ~ 364

  80. [jounal] / 2003 / The effects of widowhood on physical and mental health, health behaviors, and health outcomes. 22 (5) : 513 ~ 522

  81. [jounal] / 1991 / Depression through the first year after the death of a spouse American Journal of Psychiatry : 46 ~ 52

  82. [jounal] / 1994 / Diagnostic and treatment considerations in depression associated with late life bereavement Diagnosis and treatment of depression in late life